Jingoism, or inflaming national sentiments through slanted news stories, often relating to the Civil War; extensive use of anonymous sources by overzealous reporters, particularly in investigative stories on "big business," famous people, or political figures; self-promotion within the news media; and sensationalistic writing intended to grab readers' attention.
Yellow journalism is a term used to describe the type of journalism that emerged in the United States during the late 1860s and early 1870s. The term was coined by British journalists in response to the color used by American newspapers to identify articles they considered to be especially inflammatory or prejudicial. Today, the term is used to describe any type of journalism that uses inflammatory rhetoric and exhibits bias against certain individuals or groups.
The most notable example of yellow journalism is the work of William Randolph Hearst, who from 1871 to 1911 owned several newspapers in California, Massachusetts, and New York. Known for his strong opinions and aggressive reporting practices, Hearst printed stories with highly inflammatory headlines that often misrepresented the facts of the case.
He is also credited with creating the modern day news photo when he published photos of the assassination of President Lincoln on 6 April 1865. Prior to this event, photographs were taken as curiosities with no intention of being published.
Hearst's newspapers were so popular that many consider him to be the father of modern-day newspaper marketing.
Foreign news has diverse connotations in different mediums and throughout different historical periods and civilizations. Distant news is a culturally expressive genre that helps people to discover their identities and values by watching which foreign countries are covered by certain media outlets. It can also be used as a tool for propaganda purposes.
In journalism, foreign news is information about events or issues happening outside of the country where the news organization operates. This could include events in other countries but also in non-governmental organizations or businesses located abroad. Foreign news may cover topics such as politics, business, sports, culture, science, technology, or any other subject matter relevant to human interests.
Often, foreign news is produced by journalists who are either based overseas or have dual citizenship with another country. They may report on events occurring within their own country as well as those taking place elsewhere. Many major newspapers and magazines have foreign bureaus that employ many more than just one journalist. These bureaus may be based in cities across the world; others may only have one office open at a time depending on how often there is news to report on. Each newspaper or magazine has its own style for reporting foreign news which usually reflects the cultural sensibilities of the staff that produce it.
The 2010 Haiti earthquake, the Arab Spring, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the 2013 protests in Turkey, the Euromaidan events in Ukraine, the Syrian Civil War, the 2014 Ferguson unrest, and the Black Lives Matter movement are all notable examples of citizen journalism reporting from major world events. Internet-based platforms such as Facebook and Twitter allow individuals to report newsworthy events directly to media outlets or other users.
Citizen journalism includes reports written by anyone with access to information about an event, such as eyewitness accounts, official documents, leaked emails, or social media posts. These reports are then published online without editing or supervision. Citizen journalists may receive no compensation for their work. The term "citizen journalism" was coined in 2004 by American writer Jay Rosen. He defined it as "the production of news and commentary by citizens who are themselves engaged in the process of creating news."
In addition to defining citizen journalism, Rosen also popularized the term "junk food journalism" to describe certain types of coverage that are easy to digest but lack depth or substance. These include stories written about real estate prices, celebrity scandals, and political campaigns at a superficial level.
Rosen's concept has been applied to research projects that use social media data to analyze trends within civil society, such as the work of Stanford University's Civil Society Research Network.