The readability factor For best legibility, use black lettering on a white backdrop (so-called positive text). White lettering on a dark backdrop (negative text) is nearly as effective. The human eye is most sensitive to changes in brightness near the center of its range, which means that readers tend to ignore text on a background too dark or too light to be seen easily. However, text on a dark background will look better if it's not entirely black; instead, use colors that blend in with the darkness.
Text on a white background is the most readable because it provides maximum contrast between the letters and the surrounding area. However, text on a white background can be hard to see against some backgrounds, such as paper documents printed with black ink (they look fine but are actually white on white background). So for maximum impact, sometimes white background text needs to be placed on a feature page block.
Text on a gray background is less visible than text on a white background but more visible than text on a black background. Thus, it's useful when you want something in between white and black. Gray text also blends in better with some backgrounds than white or black text would. Gray text on a white background is less noticeable than black text on a white background but more noticeable than white text on a black background.
For best legibility, use black lettering on a white backdrop (so-called positive text). Although the contrast ratio is the same as for positive text, the reversed color scheme confuses readers and slows them down significantly.
The reason why white text on black appears better to the eye is because of the difference in brightness between white and black. Black is very dark, while white is very bright. Thus, the combination makes other elements on which it is printed more visible against the background.
This advantage comes with a price. The readability of negative text decreases when its contrast ratio is increased by adding more black to the font. Therefore, if possible, one should always choose positive text over negative or mixed text.
Another factor that affects the legibility of text is typeface design. For example, serif fonts (such as Times New Roman) are considered better for reading than sans-serif fonts (such as Arial). Serifs add decoration to the letters which helps readers recognize individual words on the page. Without these accents, it would be difficult to tell some words from others.
Overall, reading efficiency depends on many factors such as reader experience, physical condition, environment, etc. What's easy for one person might not be easy for another.
Black text on a white background is simple and traditional, and it has the greatest readability ratio. Blues and grays also give adequate contrast and hence look good against white backgrounds. Reds, oranges, and other bright colors are difficult to read on white backgrounds.
3 darker text on lighter backgrounds was scored higher than lighter text on darker backgrounds. These results are consistent with those of other studies that have found that the combination of black and white in text creates the highest visibility...
Low vision persons who are not blind see text better whether it is pure black font or white writing on a black backdrop. You may need to utilize black as an accessibility option while designing for them. To avoid eye strain, use dark gray over black for normal-sighted individuals. For those who are visually impaired, either through age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or another condition, black can be very stressful because it creates bright spots that cause pain and fatigue. Using white on a black background allows low vision users to read the text easily.
The web content production process often includes selecting typeface for body text and headings. There are many typefaces available with varying levels of difficulty to read. For example, sans serif typefaces such as Arial, Helvetica, and Verdana are generally easier to read than serif typefaces like Times New Roman or Courier.
White on a black background allows those who are visually impaired to read the text easily. Thus, using this color combination will make websites more accessible to low vision users.
Because the color characteristics and light are most suitable for the human eye, black text on a white background is preferred. This is due to the fact that white reflects every wavelength in the color spectrum. White writing on a black backdrop, sometimes known as "dark mode," forces the eye to work harder and expand wider in order to absorb more light. This is good for reducing eyestrain over time.
However, if you're like most people, you don't usually write long texts or documents in black on white. So instead of improving your vision, dark mode may actually be harming it by causing your eyes to dry out and become more sensitive to light.
The best option is probably a white background with black text. This makes sure your eyes get the chance to rest and not have to work so hard while still providing sufficient contrast for reading.
There are some apps out there that will change the color of their interface to match a particular theme or device color. For example, Apple devices only allow blue backgrounds or else they won't work properly with a white text on a blue background. An app could potentially hide this information from users by changing the color of everything on the screen to match what the user wants. However, this can cause issues for users who are trying to read content off of a blue background!
The bottom line is that black on white is preferable because it provides the best visibility possible without causing strain on the eyes.