The discrepancy between appearance and reality This is what gives a piece of literary irony. Irony can also be given by different types of language or by the behavior of the characters in the story.
Irony can be expressed directly through words or indirectly through actions. For example, when someone says "I'm serious!" but laughs, they are using indirect language to express humor. Serious matters should not be joked about!
Another example of irony in literature is when a character does something that seems wrong but later turns out to be right. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, it looks like King Claudius murdered his father, the king, but really he was killed by his brother, Laertes. At first glance, this action would seem absurd because kings do not kill each other, even if they are family members. But later we find out that it is actually true in this case.
Still another example is when someone claims to love you but really hates you. This could be someone who says they want you to live happily ever after them but really wants you to get sick or have an accident so you will need them. The person who says they love you but really hates you is called a "jealous" person.
The fairies' ability to make people fall in and out of love is a constant source of dramatic irony. The protagonists awaken dazed and certain that what they witnessed was a dream, despite the fact that the reader is aware of the reality. Puck, the joker, says at one point, "Fear not, my lord. You have fought a good fight and have won much honor," even though by this time Shakespeare knows his audience includes King Henry VIII, who has been trying to get rid of his wife Catherine of Aragon for years.
Also, although the players believe they are onstage performing before an audience, Shakespeare knows they are actually acting out scenes from a play they have just written. So the audience they think they're playing to isn't really there - it's only them! This means that everyone involved in making the play - including the characters in the play - is unaware of its ultimate success or failure.
In addition, because the players are unaware of these things, they act in ways that seem natural but are actually based on false assumptions. For example, when Lysander tells Demetrius he loves him, it seems like a normal thing to say after a night of dancing with your friend's girlfriend. But since both men assume they are talking to someone real, there's no need for either of them to confirm whom they mean.
Irony is one of Austen's most distinctive and most studied writing devices. She juxtaposes the literal sense of a remark with the comedic, weakening the original's intent to generate sarcastic disjunctions. She employs satire, parody, and irony based on incongruity in her juvenile works. In Northanger Abbey, for example, she mocks the Gothic novel as a pernicious influence by having Catherine Morland become enthralled by it. In Emma, Austen ridicules the provincial society of England by having its main character move in aristocratic circles. In Pride and Prejudice, she skewers conventional mores by having the four Bennet sisters find themselves pitted against one another in a battle for the hand of Mr. Darcy.
In Persuasion, Austen uses irony to comment on the nature of love. The story revolves around Anne Elliot, who is unable to marry the man she loves because he lacks a fortune. When Mr. Darnell offers her a marriage contract that would have made him her husband even though they were not legally married, she rejects it. Later, when Mr. Darnell goes to France to fight for his country in the war, she realizes that she is still in love with him. She decides to go home for good, but before she leaves, she tells Captain Wentworth that if he was free, she would like to marry him. At first, this statement seems absurd since she has just rejected him.
The narrative contains irony. Irony is used well by the author in the narrative "Deliverance." "What a divine sight!" said the Pandit. However, it ultimately proved to be opposite to what Dukhi asserted, as readers would learn that Dukhi had to suffer greatly in the Pandit's residence.
Answer Expert Approved The use of dramatic irony in works with untrustworthy narrators serves to clarify the aim of the tale to the reader by allowing the reader to comprehend and better connect to the narrator's intentions. An example of this usage is found in Graham Greene's 1955 novel, "The Power And The Glory." In this story, a young Spanish priest named Juan Peronists fears that he has lost his faith due to the death of his wife, who was also his mistress. He decides to seek out the man who married them so that he can find redemption for his sins.
By having the main character be an unreliable narrator, Greene is able to show the reader how much Juan Peronist is willing to lie about his past relationships to fit in with society. However, despite all of his dishonesty, Juan Peronist still wants to be believed when he tells the truth. This idea is revealed through dramatic irony as well as explained in more detail in the answer below.
Dramatic irony is used extensively in fiction written by Graham Greene.