Chandragupta, When the famine came, Chandragupta made efforts to counter it, but, dejected by the tragic conditions prevailing, he left to spend his last days in the service of Bhadrabahu at Shravanabelagola, a famous religious site in southwestern India, where Chandragupta fasted to death. He was 29 years old.
After the famine had passed, Chandragupta returned to Pataliputra and ordered that sacrifices be made to the gods so that no more famines would occur. He also built many public works, including roads and canals, and provided many free services such as water supply and irrigation. He encouraged commerce by removing all restrictions on foreign trade and abolished all taxes except on land. In addition, he founded several universities to promote education among the people. Finally, before dying, he appointed his son, Bindusara, as his successor.
Chandragupta's reign was very successful and peaceful; during his time, most of India became integrated into a single economic system. The economy of India was based on agriculture and industry. Before Chandragupta, most of the products used by Indians were imported from outside the country. But after his victory over the Kalingas, no more armies were sent out to fight wars, and Chandragupta spent his time promoting culture and education instead. His example showed that even a king could protect his people without using violence.
The emperor abdicated his throne in 298 BCE, relinquishing sovereignty to his son Bindusara. He then journeyed south to Shravanabelogola, which is presently in Karnataka. Chandragupta meditated there for five weeks without eating or drinking until he died of famine, a practice known as sallekhana or santhara.
According to tradition, Chandragupta was sitting in meditation when his hair started to grow again. Seeing this, the people of India believed that he had returned from death. They gathered around him in a crowd and cried out "Chandragupta has risen from death". With tears in his eyes, Chandragupta told them to prepare his body for burial.
He was laid to rest at Shravanabelagola with full royal honors. Even today, his body is kept there in a golden shrine surrounded by precious stones. His death anniversary is celebrated as Dasera (the night of nights) in Karnataka. People stay up all night singing and dancing in his honor.
In addition to being an accomplished mathematician, astronomer, and inventor, Chandragupta was also a great warrior who conquered almost the entire Indian subcontinent. He is regarded as the greatest ruler of his time. The fact that he became king at such a young age makes him even more impressive.
There are many myths about how he died. Some say that he consumed poison while others claim that he committed suicide by hanging himself.
Chandragupta was a king who reigned between 340 and 298 BCE. He died of famine because he practiced Jainism after handing up his realm to his son Bindusara. Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan kingdom and the monarch of the Northern Empire. When his grandson Ashoka died, the Mauryan Empire came to an end.
Chandragupta was born in 328 BCE, to a noble family that could be traced back to the Vedic era. His father's name is not known but his mother's name was Urmi. She was from the same clan as the other kings who ruled before him. This indicates that he had royal blood running in his veins. When he was young, his father went to war against the next-door country called Magadha. Although he lost this battle, his father was able to retain his throne.
After his father's death, when Chandragupta was only nine years old, his brother Shishupala ruled as regent until their cousin Bindusara was ready to take over the throne. But soon after Bindusara became king, he abandoned his brother and took control of the government himself. This makes Chandragupta start a new life in exile with many other former court officials. They left behind their possessions which included gold, silver, jewels, and ivory that belonged to the king.
According to Jain stories dating 800 years after his death, Chandragupta abdicated his kingdom and became a Jain monk, then proceeded to South India and committed sallekhana, or death fasting. The stories say that he died at the age of 105 years.
Chandragupta's son Magadha continued to rule as a good king until his own death, aged only 19. Then the country fell into chaos for several years while various families fought for power.
The story goes that during these wars a young boy named Ashoka was left in charge of the government. When he came of age he decided to make peace with his brothers and uncles by accepting their advice. He banned fighting among himself and his relatives and imposed justice by using three kinds of punishment: fines, imprisonment, and execution. This made him very popular with the people and soon all disputes were resolved this way instead of through war.
As soon as order was restored, Ashoka went to South India where he defeated the last ruler of the Chandragupta dynasty and took over his territory. He renamed his new country Maurya (meaning "the enlightened") and started writing letters to all kings and rulers around the world, telling them about the benefits of peace and asking them to send him servants who could write languages he needed for his court.
During his reign, art, architecture, and sculpture thrived, and ancient India's cultural progress reached a pinnacle. According to legend, Chandragupta II rose to power by assassinating his feeble elder brother. The prince who was supposed to inherit the throne escaped death because of an accident involving some burning oil. After becoming king at such a young age, Chandragupta II decided not to marry or have children. This is said to have caused the people to criticize him for being selfish and out of touch with their needs.
Chandragupta II ruled from 350 to 413 AD. He ended the oppression of slavery and established an empire that stretched from the Indian Ocean to central Asia. Under his rule, many important works of art were completed including the Stupa at Sanchi which is considered one of India's greatest achievements in architecture.
Chandragupta II died while on a hunting trip in 413 AD. According to tradition, he was killed by a tiger. However, there are theories that he may have been assassinated by his son, who then assumed the throne under the name of Vikramaditya.
Vikramaditya ruled for only five years before being forced to retire due to ill health. He was given a royal title after retirement and lived out his life in dignity.
Chandragupta II was an incredible conqueror. His biggest success was permanently destroying the Shaka power in Malwa, Gujarat, and Saurashtra. He acquired control of three key areas in Bharuch: Cambay and Sopara. He also took on the appellation Shakari, meaning Shaka conqueror. Thus he transformed his name from Bindusara to Chandragupta II.
His achievements are especially remarkable because he ruled over such a large area with such a small staff. It has been estimated that only five hundred soldiers were needed to occupy each city that he captured. This shows how powerful the Guptas had become during their early years after Jayavarman's death.
Also worth mentioning is that during his reign, coins were first issued in India. These coins have been found in great numbers in Bangladesh, which shows that many people must have been willing to travel long distances just to have some contact with the outside world.
Last but not the least, Chandragupta II was a religious thinker who tried to integrate various religions of his time. For example, he married his daughter into the Kushana kingdom, which at that time included parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. In doing so, he wanted to show that Buddhism and Hinduism could live side by side in peace and harmony.
For all these reasons, Chandragupta II is considered one of the greatest rulers in Indian history.