Galileo used his words carefully during his trial for heresy. It was only after the trial, no doubt enraged by his conviction, that he was believed to have murmured to the inquisitors, "Eppur si muove" ("And still it moves")," as if to indicate that they might have won this war, but the truth would triumph in the end. This phrase became famous and is now often used as a motto by those who believe that justice should be independent of political power.
In fact, Galileo said nothing at all during his trial. The inquisitors simply accused him of being a heretic and demanded that he admit it. If he had done so, he would have been released without further punishment. Instead, he maintained his innocence and was sentenced to life imprisonment. His wife was allowed to visit him once a month.
After nine years in prison, he was freed on bail while he appealed against his sentence. He died before the appeal was decided so his body was given to his family for burial. However, because he was still regarded as a heretic, his bones were kept in storage for two more centuries before they were finally laid to rest in 1839.
Despite this terrible ordeal, most historians agree that Galileo's trial was one of the reasons why Europe moved away from religious violence and toward rationalism. It showed that science could be used to defend the beliefs of Catholics as well as Protestants. It also demonstrated that scientists should be judged by their work rather than their religion.
The Catholic Church, predictably, reacted and ordered Galileo to stand trial for heresy in 1633. He was later found guilty of heliocentrism and forced to formally abandon such beliefs. His books were then banned by the church.
Galileo's ideas spread rapidly throughout Europe after his death in 1642. His telescope had a huge impact on people realizing how big the world is. Before it was discovered, people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe and that it was flat with no edge. Once people saw how big it was, they realized that there were other planets like Earth and that we could travel to them.
His book "Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences" is one of the first books ever written about science. It was so popular that it was re-printed seven times between 1630 and 1660. The printing press was not easy to use at the time and only a few people could afford to buy these books. But still, they played an important role in spreading knowledge about astronomy and physics.
The Catholic Church tried hard to stop people from learning about science but they failed because most people didn't care what religion they belonged to as long as they were allowed to live their lives freely. Only in England and some other countries did scientists have to fight against religious laws to practice their beliefs.
A heresy Galileo is imprisoned and compelled to retract his work. Galileo was forced to kneel on June 22, 1633, after being judged "vehemently suspected of heresy." He was obliged to "totally forsake the mistaken opinion" of Copernicanism and read a statement in which he repudiated most of his life's work. On February 23, 1634, he signed an official document renouncing his belief in this theory.
In addition to being forced to deny any form of heliocentrism in himself, Galileo was also made to repeat these statements in court: "I declare that I have not believed nor do I believe that the sun is the center of the universe; instead I hold that the earth is the center of the universe and that the sun is just one of the planets."
Galileo was tried by the Inquisition because he refused to accept what he felt were unwarranted accusations against him. The Inquisition never actually accused Galileo of anything but held him under house arrest because it wanted to use his example to force other scientists who were thinking along similar lines to abandon their ideas rather than defend them in court.
Although he was forced to admit his guilt and recant his heretical opinions, Galileo was allowed to keep his noble status and all his possessions. He was simply forbidden to discuss science or write about it again without permission from the government officials who controlled him.
Galileo is imprisoned and compelled to retract his work.
After his release, Galileo continued to study and write about astronomy and physics but was often persecuted for his beliefs. In 1636, he was arrested again and this time ordered by the Inquisition to stop "defending the earth's motion or anything similar."
In 1638, Galileo was released for lack of evidence but required to appear before an Inquisition court every six months to answer questions about his faith. If he refused to do so, he would be held in prison until he agreed to say something derogatory about Christianity or the Church.
In 1639, Galileo published Sidereus Nuncius (Starry Messenger), which included descriptions of planets beyond Mars that were later identified as moons. In 1640, he published Two New Sciences, which discussed gravity and the expansion of gases such as oxygen. The Church accused him of committing fraud by having assistants copy parts of his works while he pretended not to know about it. He was found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment for another year.
Galileo was judged guilty of heresy for his discourse and sentenced to house imprisonment for the rest of his life. The sentence was confirmed by the pope in a letter that included the phrase "so that God may help you overcome your obstinacy". During this time, Galileo remained under house arrest in Florence. He died there in 1642 at the age of 84.
In our time, people are often persecuted for their ideas. Here, we will discuss what has happened to scientists who had serious disagreements with traditional views about science.
Galileo was brought before the Inquisition because he was considered a threat to the authority of the church. His opinions on the earth's rotation around the sun-not accepted at the time-threatened the very foundation of medieval thinking about science. Although he protested his innocence, the church had found someone willing to testify against him.
During this time, Galileo was not free to discuss science or publish his work. Instead, he was forced to write letters from his prison cell explaining everything that was wrong with the church's position. These letters were read by members of the Inquisition and used as evidence against him.