Citation in-text/paraphrase If no author is given, use a work's shorter title. If it's a brief work (like an article), put it in quote marks; if it's a lengthy work (like a book or an entire website), italicize it and give page numbers (if there are any).
In other words, don't worry about authors. They're born, they die, civilizations rise and fall, but quotations never do.
If no author is given, use a work's shorter title. In most cases, this information will be found in the reference list at the end of the paper.
For example, if you are referencing an article that was published in a journal, then you would say "John Smith wrote 'A Brief History of Time,' 4 pages long." If you are referencing a book by John Smith, then you would say "John Smith wrote A Brief History of Time, 4 pages long." Both references are referring to the same person, so there is no need to repeat his name.
References are like tickets to another story. By giving each other's stories credit, we are allowing others to continue these stories. Without citations, what is the point of writing articles or books? The only people who benefit are the authors who can sell more books or have their ideas turned into movies/TV shows. This isn't good enough reason to cheat yourself and your readers out of valuable information!
Citations are also like fingerprints. No two writers process their material the same way, so even though you may be quoting from one writer, you cannot assume that you can get away with not citing them.
When there is no known author for a source, use the work's shorter title rather of the author's name. If it's a short work (such as an article), put the title in quotation marks; italicize it if it's a larger work (e.g., plays, novels, television series, full Web sites), and provide a page number if one is available. In general, only works published in books or magazines are given authors' names.
If you are writing about someone who has not been identified as an author but who may have a publication history, include the name of a major figure within the field along with an indication that more information can be found at www.bartleby.com/141/ (Bartlett's Familiar Quotations). For example, if you are writing about Abraham Lincoln, mention that more information can be found at bartleby.com/141/.
It is acceptable to use citations such as "New York Times," "The Guardian," and "Le Monde" to indicate that information came from an established source. However, using smaller newspapers or magazines without naming them runs the risk of readers thinking that your information comes from unproven sources. It is therefore recommended that you identify sources whenever possible.
In-text citations are used when citing information found in the text of another writer. They are essential in academic essays because they allow editors to determine the reliability of sources cited within the essay itself.
There are two methods for doing this: using a signal phrase, which means the in-text citation will just include the page number(s), or using a parenthetical citation, which includes the author's last name (or the title, if the work is authorless) plus the page number(s).