Case citations comprise the names of the parties (also known as the name or title of the case) as well as a unique reference that may be used to identify the case. The reference consists of three parts: a number, a word, and a phrase.
The number is assigned by the court in which the case was decided. It is found at the end of the opinion or judgment. If multiple opinions are issued in the case, each one is given a separate number. Numbers are used instead of names because many cases are related or involve more than one party. For example, two cases involving the same defendant but filed in different courts could be numbered separately and identified with different references if they were not resolved by joint consent orders.
The word is usually the first word of the text that contains the facts of the case. This word serves as an index or table of contents for the opinion. There is no requirement that it describe the subject matter of the case, but it is useful when doing so. For example, if an opinion holds that a contract is void for illegality, the word "void" would appear in the word form along with the case name and the date the opinion was released.
The phrase is an abbreviation for the statement of facts or the question presented for resolution by the court.
Case citations include the volume number of the reporter in which the case occurs, the reporter's name, the page number on which the case begins, and the year the judgement was issued. As a result, each reference is distinct. Also, because several cases may be combined into one report, references to cases often do not give their full names.
For example, John Doe v Smith, 79 NE 2d 827 (1948), is found by searching for "John Doe" in the Nebraska Supreme Court Reporter with the word "v" followed by the word "Smith". The case citation for this decision is "79 Neb 943". The number 80 indicates that this is panel opinion with three judges signing it. The word "judgment" has been omitted from the quotation below because the case did not result in a judgment being issued by the court.
Another example, In re Miller, 114 NH 569; 48 A2d 71 (1945), can be found using the same method as the previous case. It is reported together with eight other cases under the title In Re Application of Lincoln Electric Co., 162 NJ Super 464; 397 A2d 1058 (1978). The citation for this decision is "114 NH 569".
In general, the more recent the case, the higher its value as a source.
Case Studies In the body of the essay, include a complete reference for the case. The entire citation includes the names of both principal parties (in italics or underlined), the year, the volume number of the case reports, the shortened name of the report series, and the page number. You should also cite sources used in your research, such as books and journals. These citations appear at the end of your essay in a bibliography.
The easiest way to reference a case study is by using Harvard format. Follow these steps to reference a case study well: First, identify all facts mentioned in the case study that you want to refer to later. Second, find the source of each fact - this will be one of your cited references. Third, write down the date you obtained each fact - if possible, give the exact date. Fourth, place each fact in the appropriate location in your essay. Fifth, conclude your analysis by stating what was learned from the case study that could be applied to other situations.
For example, let's say that in your analysis of a case study on drug addiction, you come up with several ideas about how to prevent substance abuse problems. You would then reference those ideas in your essay by including them in your discussion section. Although there are many different ways to reference a case study, this is just an example of how it might be done.
Your instructor may ask you to follow a specific style when referencing cases studies.
Case citation is a mechanism used by lawyers to identify earlier court decisions, either in a series of publications known as reporters or law reports, or in a neutral form that recognizes a decision regardless of where it is recorded. Potential Dangers of Mussels The initial symptom is gastrointestinal discomfort. Muscle paralysis may result. A coma and death can occur if the person consumes a large amount of infected shellfish. Symptoms usually appear 6-12 hours after eating the mussel and may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, confusion, loss of consciousness, and possibly death.
The goal of case citation is to provide researchers with access to the legal analysis expressed in previous cases. As such, case citations are an important tool for judges, scholars, and other professionals who need to understand how past courts have resolved similar issues.
For example, a researcher might want to know what court has held that X cannot be the basis for liability because Y. Or she might want to know what court has said that Z cannot be used as a defense because AA. By using the citation, the researcher can quickly locate the relevant case and perform additional research based on the information contained within.
In addition to helping scientists learn from past mistakes, case citations are also useful when you want to find out what courts have said about a certain issue.
Citations containing neutral citations A typical case citation, including a neutral citation, has the following elements: case name | [year] | court | number, | [year] OR (year) | volume | report abbreviation | first page. Checking the case on one of the large commercial databases or Baillii will help you find neutral citations. Muggsy understood the importance of being in the right location at the right moment in order to get rebounds and steals. He also studied with NBA coaches to figure out how to effectively position his body to leverage his body weight for defensive reasons. Muggsy was a leader by example who taught others through his actions what it meant to be a Boston Celtic.
When referencing a case, it is important to use its full title; this will help the reader identify its relevance to your paper. If your school does not have a journal or newsletter that publishes recent cases, then you may want to look into subscribing to a general legal journal such as the Harvard Law Review or Yale Law Journal. These journals are useful because they publish more recent cases that are relevant to current issues before the courts. You can find these journals at most law libraries. It is also helpful if you can locate past articles written about the case you are referencing, as these often include full citations of interest as well.
Finally, when referencing a case, it is important to give credit where it is due. This means giving the author of the case and the year it was published. If you are unable to locate information about the author, you can usually infer what role he or she played at the court they were working for. For example, if the case involved lawyers from different firms fighting over fees, then the author probably worked at one of these firms.