Citations that are neutral (2001-) A citation is considered "neutral" if it does not refer to a specific law report series; it is unrelated to the law report system. Cases are designated by the name of the court and the case number rather than the reporter, volume, and page number. Such citations allow parties to seek all cases in which a given issue was decided and they do not have to search individual reports to find these cases.
A neutral citation is the one-of-a-kind reference issued to a certain decision by the HM Courts and Tribunals Service. Unlike the majority of citations, neutral citations relate to the decision itself rather than a specific report of a case. It will be extended to the other divisions of the High Court in due time. For now, it can only be obtained from the Clerk of the House of Lords.
Neutral citations are used when there is no applicable court ruling or legislation that provides for a default judgment. They are also used when HMCTS wants to comment on an issue that does not merit a full-scale judicial review but still requires a formal response from the government.
For example, in December 2012 the Supreme Court ruled that prisoners serving life sentences with no chance of release are entitled to apply for parole. The government did not agree with this conclusion and instead decided to introduce a new law giving judges more power to send serious criminals to prison for the rest of their lives. In order to comment on this issue before it was passed into law, HMCTS issued a neutral citation. There had been no previous court ruling on this subject so the clerk of the house of lords wrote a new citation in order to provide guidance to future cases involving similar issues.
Citations are important documents because they are often the only way to get official feedback on issues before them. They also serve as unique references to particular decisions made by the courts.
Citations of decisions published in a reporter typically include the reporter's name or abbreviation, the year or volume, the page number where the decision begins (sometimes followed by an identifying number if more than one judgment is on a page), and the name or abbreviation of the court that decided...
Judgment Citation Unreported When a court issues a decision, the language of the ruling is generally posted on the court's website relatively promptly. Because they have not been published in a law report series, these judgements are referred to as "unreported judgments."
In some cases, however, a judgment may remain unreported even after it is issued. This can happen if there is a technical problem with the court's website or if the judge has directed that the judgement be kept confidential. These undisclosed decisions are known as "citation unreports".
Citation unreporting was originally used by judges as a means of protecting young lawyers from negative publicity that could arise through their work being reported in the media. But today it is also done by more senior judges who want to prevent their decisions from being cited by other courts in future litigation.
Judges issue written reasons for their decisions and sometimes include citations to previous cases that were relevant to their rulings. If those citations are omitted from the official record, then others will not be able to use them when developing legal analysis or writing briefs before future proceedings.
Unreported cases are important because they can provide guidance on how other courts have dealt with similar issues. They can also help us understand what factors a judge might have taken into account when making a decision.
Case citations comprise the names of the parties (also known as the name or title of the case) as well as a unique reference that may be used to identify the case. 3 days have passed.
The body of the case citation usually consists of two paragraphs: one describing the legal issue before the court, and the other summarizing the facts of the case.
In order for a court to render a judgment, it must have jurisdiction over the subject matter of the lawsuit and over the parties. If one of these requirements is not met, then the court cannot proceed with the case and it will be dismissed.
Jurisdiction over the subject matter requires that the case involve some form of legal action or dispute between two parties who can be ordered by the court to make them come together in litigation. For example, if there is no plaintiff who has been injured in a car accident with a defendant, then the court cannot exercise jurisdiction over the case because there is nothing for it to decide. On the other hand, if a student is accused of cheating in school and wants the accusation dropped, then this is an example of a case where subject matter jurisdiction is satisfied. The court has the power to decide such matters as arise between students at a public school.