Charts, graphs, or statistical analysis will be included in empirical papers. Empirical research articles are often lengthy, ranging from 8 to 30 pages. A bibliography is always included at the conclusion of the piece. Additional notes may appear toward the end of the paper.
Empirical studies use actual evidence gathered from real people, events, or phenomena. As opposed to theoretical papers which make assumptions about what is true based on subjective opinions, empirical studies use objective facts collected through experiments or surveys.
The field of empirical science focuses on studying reality with methods that are directly relevant for doing so. Thus, empirical science aims to answer questions such as "How high is the mountain?" and "Why do birds fly south for winter?" rather than questions that are not relevant to obtaining information about reality ("Are mountains white with snow all year round?" and "Do birds have feelings?"). The nature of these questions determines how researchers go about answering them. If the question is important but cannot be readily answered with current technology, scientists may design an experiment (e.g., a controlled study) to test it.
In empirical science, conclusions must be drawn only on the basis of evidence presented in the paper. An empirical study cannot prove anything; it can only report what has been found to be true under specific conditions.
Introduction, methodology, results, and discussion are the sections of empirical papers (although the actual section names vary). The introduction provides the article's literature review and is a useful source of information as you construct your own literature review. It also serves as a guide for those who will read the paper, helping them understand what role each section plays in the overall story.
The methodology section describes the research design or analysis used to analyze the data. This section should include any assumptions made about the study population when using statistical methods (for example, random sampling), as well as any limitations identified in the data set. Researchers must be clear and explicit when describing their methods so that other scholars can reproduce the findings of their studies.
Results provide the main findings of the study. They usually consist of numerical data presented in tables or graphs. These results may be summarized in a single sentence or detailed description of what was found throughout the paper. Results often include details on sample size, response rate, statistical significance, and precision of estimates.
Discussion discusses implications/significance of the findings, comparing the results with previous research. Implications involve predictions about what will happen if something is done (or not done) with respect to the problem under investigation. Significance involves explaining why this result was obtained, considering alternative explanations.
Many databases allow you to search for empirical research papers by inserting the terms "empirical research" or "empirical study" and restricting your search to peer-reviewed publications. You may also narrow your search to include certain categories of empirical research, such as "qualitative research" or "quantitative research."
Empirical research is any study that uses actual data (such as results of surveys) to determine causation. This means that an empirical paper will usually use statistical methods to analyze the results of questionnaires or experiments. Empirical studies are often used to answer questions about human behavior or scientific theories. For example, an empirical study could investigate the effects of different factors on retention rates in a college counseling center. The results of this study would be considered empirical because they were based on real data collected from actual students.
Empirical papers are not always easy to find. The first thing to know is that you cannot simply type "empirical research" into Google and expect to get back a list of all published studies. Because so few researchers use empirical studies exclusively, most journals publish both theoretical and empirical papers. Thus, you will need to understand the purpose of each journal you're interested in reading to decide which ones contain empirical studies that are relevant to your field.
You should understand the distinction between empirical and review publications. An empirical (research) article describes the methodology and results of an original research study done by the article's writers. A review article, often known as a "literature review," examines previous research works on a certain topic. It is written by someone who wants to summarize the most important findings from these studies for their own audience.
Empirical articles are published in academic journals that require authors to use rigorous scientific methods to collect and analyze data. These journals usually allow only one article can be published every six months. If you want to share your research with other scientists, then an empirical journal is the place to do it.
Review papers are written by people who want to share information about a specific topic with others who might not have time to read through all the literature on it. They may also want to call attention to some important issues or trends in the field. For example, a reviewer could point out problems with studies used as evidence for certain conclusions about how things work out in real life. Review papers are published in journals that allow several to be printed each issue.
It is easy to confuse empirical articles with reviews. For example, you might see a headline stating "The research shows..." and assume that what follows is a summary of new research on this subject. However, this type of article is actually describing the results of another study.
Articles for Review You should understand the distinction between empirical and review publications. It is written by a researcher who has conducted a literature search to identify other studies related to his or her own project. The reviewer then summarizes the findings of these previous studies in his or her own words.
Empirical articles are published in peer-reviewed journals that require authors to follow specific guidelines regarding data analysis and presentation of information. Review articles are usually published in non-peer-reviewed journals but they do seek out submissions from qualified researchers. Since reviews use previously published materials, they do not require as much originality as empirical articles but they can be more comprehensive. Reviews can also include new material not found in other sources. For example, a review may summarize recent advances in a field so that readers are kept up-to-date on changes or developments related to the subject.
In conclusion, empirical articles describe the results of original research studies while review articles examine previous work on a certain topic. Although they both require significant research efforts, one must be aware of which type of article we are reading so that relevant information can be extracted.