"References" is 1 inch down, centered. It's not capitalized, italicized, or bolded. There are no extra lines between the reference citations, which are double-spaced. A dangling indent is used for references that extend beyond the first line. The title of the book can be included as a reference if you put it in brackets: (My Book).
An entry in a bibliography is referred to as a "reference." For example, if your friend asks you what book he should read next, you could say "There are so many good books out there; choose one at random and give it a try!" The word "random" is the reference; it tells the reader where to find other information about the book.
References are very important when you're writing papers or reports that need to be accurate and reliable. If you get them wrong, then your work will also be incorrect. It's best to follow some simple rules when writing up references:
• Use full names for authors, even if they're famous. Keep in mind that these are the people who wrote the books or conducted the research projects on which you're basing your own work. Full names are required by most journals, so make sure you include them here.
• Put the year of publication before the name of the journal if possible.
In general, the references are double-spaced and organized alphabetically by the last name of the first author. The initial line of each reference is typed flush with the left margin, and any subsequent lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin (this is called a "hanging indent"). The reference list should not include book titles or chapter names; these appear in the text following the references.
The typical reference list includes the date cited along with the source, which is usually an article published in a journal or magazine. If the source is a book, include its title in addition to its publication date. Use full citations for articles, including the author's name and year published, and shorter forms for books, including the author's name only. Avoid using abbreviations in reference lists or they may not be recognized by readers.
For example, here is a reference list for an essay titled "References Used in This Article":
Alley, Christine. 2013. "References." In Essay on Research Methods. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education.
Blackburn, Simon and Michael Wittingham. 2006. In A Handbook of Social Psychology. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Carpenter, John L., et al. 2000. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
An annotated bibliography follows the same style as a research article.
The bibliographic information for all of the sources you cite in your paper is listed on the APA References page. The references list should start on a new page labeled "References" (no quotation marks, underlining, or other formatting), centered at the top of the page. It, too, should be double-spaced, as should the remainder of your paper. Reference lists should be in alphabetical order by last name of author, with the exception of books and articles, which are listed by title.
It is not necessary to include page numbers in your reference list, but if possible, it is best to do so. Page numbers are helpful when referencing back within the same document or when searching for a specific term. They can also aid reviewers in evaluating your paper.
Bibliography pages should be typed, single-space, with no heading assigned (i.e., no italics, quotes, or other formatting). Underline key words that appear in the text of your paper but are not defined as terms in any given journal's style guide. These will be used as search triggers for identifying appropriate studies.
Reference citations should include the author's name, the date published, and the title of the publication. If your citation method requires a publisher, refer to the publisher's instructions for including this information. For example, IEEE requires authors to provide an electronic copy of their papers upon acceptance. An acknowledgment page is not required, but it is recommended that authors acknowledge themselves and others who have contributed material to their work.
In the references list, the author's surname comes first, followed by the first initial, the publication date in parentheses, the title in italics with just the first word capitalized, and the publishing location and publisher name, separated by a colon. For example, Alston: 1999, The American Psychological Association: Washington.
References are listed in order of appearance in the text. If, however, you use the Bibliography entry type for your references, they don't have to appear in the order in which they are cited in the text.
See also relevant sections in the APA Style Guide.
Each source referenced in the paper must be included in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. All text, like the rest of your essay, should be double-spaced. Each reference page should have two spaces after the date on which it was published.
In the United States, academic papers are usually published in multi-page documents called journals. These papers are often based on previous work or research that has not yet been published. When writing about such works, authors need to provide sources for their information. These sources can be other publications that are available online today or books from which an author could have taken ideas or materials. The term "reference page" is used to describe such a page that provides information about a single source.
An author's reference page consists of three main components: a listing of all references used in the paper; an explanation of why each reference was chosen; and a short description of the reference's importance in the context of the paper.
APA requires that authors include their own names as well as those of others when referencing books or articles. This is so that readers will know who is responsible if someone attempts to use one of these references in a future paper or report. Authors also need to give credit where it is due.