Swift effectively employs ethos, pathos, and logos in his satirical essay. His ludicrous plan persuades his audience to adopt alternative means of combating poverty in a roundabout way. Swift's use of emotion purposefully contradicts his reasoning, as his suggestion disgusts even the most apathetic readers. Yet this only makes his argument more compelling; it gives his idea weight and credibility.
Swift starts off by establishing an ethical framework for his argument, explaining that he will be dealing with issues such as poverty and corruption only because they are "the most serious problems that exist in society today". He goes on to say that he feels compelled to take action against these evils because "nothing is worse than living in a country where people suffer needlessly". By stating his reasons upfront, Swift creates trust with his audience and shows that he is not going to be proposing anything frivolous. This allows him to proceed with his argument without worrying about upsetting anyone.
He then moves on to explain how his proposed solution would work. Basically, he suggests that they form a government agency called "The Agency", which would provide assistance to those who need it most. In order to do this, The Agency would need to have unlimited power over all governments worldwide. To make sure this happened, nobody should be allowed to become president for life - instead, they should only be able to hold office for a maximum of eight years.
Jonathan Swift expertly employs a number of rhetorical tactics to promote his proposition. To illustrate these negative attitudes, he employs logical fallacies, analogies, repetition, and parallelism, as well as comedy, sarcasm, and satire. He begins by labeling the existing church practices as "crazy" and then proceeds to explain why they are wrong. By doing this, he is able to gain support for his own proposal.
Swift also compares the current church practices to other institutions that have fallen into disuse. For example, he states that because marriage was originally intended to provide security for both parties, not just for one, then it makes sense that the state should also play an important role in marriage. Therefore, by ending all religious authority over marriage, countries will be free to marry for love instead of based on economics or politics. This analogy serves to explain how marriage used to be done solely between a man and a woman but now includes same-sex couples. It also shows that society has changed and it is time for the institution of marriage to change with it.
Swift then moves on to discuss the different types of marriages that people enter into today. Although he agrees that some form of marriage is necessary to protect against financial hardship if one partner dies, he claims that most people get married because it is attractive to do so.
Jonathan Swift, author of "A Modest Proposal," uses satire, outlandish assertions, and rhetorical tactics to expose or condemn people's foolishness, vices, and flaws. Swift satirizes England on purpose by employing logical fallacies and a very "knowledgeable" tone. He makes statements that seem like facts but are actually judgments about current events or people.
Swift uses parody to criticize political figures of his time as well as current celebrities. He attacks the Church of England for being corrupt and out of touch with its parishioners. He also mocks those who claim to know everything about religion while at the same time not practicing it themselves.
Swift employs irony to show how absurd it is for humans to eat meat when there is so much poverty in the world. He uses this technique to criticize the British government for trying to make money by selling meat when many people were starving.
Finally, Swift uses jest to entertain his readers. He writes satirical poems about famous people such as Jonathan Winthrop, an early American politician; Sir Francis Drake, a seafaring adventurer; and Queen Elizabeth I, the queen of England at the time he wrote the poems.
Swift uses all these techniques to show that humans can learn from their mistakes and grow wiser with time. He also uses satire to encourage readers to think for themselves instead of following the crowd.