When a paper is resubmitted after considerable alterations, the editor nearly usually sends it back out for review after ensuring that there appears to have been a good attempt to react to the review criticisms. The amended article is usually forwarded to the original reviewers if they are still available, although it is also sometimes sent to new reviewers. If the paper is accepted again, then the process can be repeated as often as desired.
In some cases, the authors may choose to submit the paper again with changes designed to further improve it. For example, if a reviewer comments on issues not addressed in the first submission, then those changes may be made and the paper submitted again. This could be done any number of times until the paper is accepted by the journal. It is common for papers to be rejected during the course of their publication history because they do not meet enough of the journal's criteria to be considered acceptable research for publication.
Some journals will allow an already published paper to be revised and re-submitted later when more information becomes available or theories change. These papers are called "serial" articles and can be useful in filling gaps in knowledge or providing updates. Such articles must be written in a way that makes them appropriate for future submission, and usually focus on a single topic within broad boundaries. Serial articles that are not accepted initially but eventually are published often require several revisions and tend to be of lower quality than those that are accepted immediately. They are often written by researchers who are seeking publication for their work.
Papers that have undergone significant alterations are typically resubmitted for review, sometimes to a new set of reviewers. A "revise and resubmit" with considerable adjustments is not a guarantee that your article will be published, but it does indicate that you are on the right track. Such papers are often accepted by other journals or conference proceedings.
If you do not resubmit within a few months of initial submission, then others may begin to wonder whether your paper is ever going to be published. They can start submitting their own articles to the journal to prevent this from happening.
In some cases, an editor may decide that your paper is too far along in its development to be submitted again. For example, if another paper on similar subjects comes out while your work is being reviewed, then it would be inappropriate to submit it again. However, in many cases, authors can still revise their papers and submit them again later.
"Revisions Are Being Processed," Revision 1 20/1/2011: The document is resubmitted, and an additional e-mail is sent to the corresponding author. "With Editor" (20 January 2011): Presumably, the editor ensures that the item is worthy of being resubmitted for review... (More)">
To make sure that you do not miss any revisions, it is important that you monitor your e-mail inboxes from time to time.
After reviewing the reports, the editor makes the choice to revise and resubmit (R & R). It indicates the opinion that there is a good likelihood that the article will be publishable following one or more rounds of editing. If they are corrected, the outcome will be publishable. Otherwise, it is not possible to say anything conclusive from just one attempt at revision.
The editor should feel comfortable with the report's overall quality before making this decision. Some issues can be resolved in an edit; others require further discussion with the authors. All editors make decisions about which issues to resolve and which topics for further discussion in their own ways.
Revise and Resubmit is used when an article needs major revisions but it is not clear yet whether those revisions will be able to be made as part of a first round review and approval by an editor. For example, if two reviewers request several rewrites before they are satisfied with the article, then the editor may decide to invite them both for a second round of review with no guarantee of success. In this case, it would be inappropriate to choose Accept without Review as there might be some useful information in the comments by the reviewers that could help the author improve the article.
It is important to note that this option is not intended for use as a way of getting rid of difficult reviews.
Following a substantial modification, the paper may be rejected. When you submit your article after significant modification, it is allocated to the same reviewers to expedite the process. If they also reject it, then what can you do? You can request other reviewers or try to find out why they rejected it.
So, yes, major revision means rejection.
Yes. If the reviewers are dissatisfied with the adjustments, they may request more or reject the article.
The four procedures I use to react to a revise and resubmit request from a scientific publication are outlined here, and I feel they can serve as a valuable example.
To "review" Revision literally means "to see again," which is to examine things from a new, critical perspective. It is a continual process of examining your arguments, assessing your evidence, clarifying your aim, restructuring your presentation, and rejuvenating stale writing. The first draft is not final; you can always revise it later.
As you edit, think about what you want to say and how you want to say it. Avoid restating what has already been said or repeating yourself. Rather than trying to improve everything at once, take small steps toward improvement. You can revisit parts of your essay that need work later.
In conclusion, revision is an ongoing process that should not be viewed as a single event in the writing process. It is necessary for any good piece of writing to be reviewed repeatedly until it is perfect.