Point/counterpoint (also known as "concession-refutation") is a very convincing and successful argument tactic. To engage in point-counterpoint, the writer first "fairly describes" or even partially accepts (concedes) an opponent's argument. Then, they refute (disprove) every premise of the argument, one by one. At the end, the writer shows that their argument proves its conclusion despite the fact that it has been accepting (or conceding) some premises of the opponent.
Here are two examples:
Exhibit A: An argument for euthanasia based on equal value theory. It concedes that killing someone to save their life is good because it saves their life but then argues that since all people have dignity regardless of their status as patients or consumers, we should be allowed to end their lives when they cannot care for themselves.
Exhibit B: An argument against euthanasia based on double effect theory. It concedes that killing someone to save their life is bad because it causes them pain but then argues that since doctors would never intend to cause pain when they perform surgery or give patients medicine, they should be allowed to end someone's life after they suffer through unnecessary pain.
Both exhibits use point-counterpoint to arrive at their conclusion.
A point-counterpoint exchange occurs when you and your partner participate in a debate with another pair of students in front of the rest of the class. It is not a formal argument, but it is structured. You should relish the opportunity to participate in a heated debate with another student. This activity is often used at universities where students can show their intellectual prowess by arguing both for and against a particular topic.
Point-counterpoint exchanges are a great way for students to practice their reasoning skills while debating a controversial issue. The moderator will choose a topic that most students know about, such as whether or not teachers should be paid more. Students then have to research the issue thoroughly and write an essay in which they argue for and against the motion: "Teachers should be paid more." They can only use facts from the article to support their arguments, and they must include a conclusion section at the end of their essays where they summarize their points and explain why they are either for or against the motion. Students then have to read other students' point-counterpoint essays and give written feedback to them. This activity would ideally take place over several classes so that students have the chance to debate different topics throughout the year.
Point-counterpoint exchanges are easy to set up between two separate groups of students. Each group writes an essay on the same topic, giving their reasons for being either for or against the motion.
Counterpoint is a compositional approach in which two or more melodic lines (or "voices") complement yet function independently of one another. The phrase "punctus contra punctum" translates to "point against point" in Latin. Polyphonic music is created by composers using counterpoint. Counterpoint exercises the intellect and imagination of the composer; it requires that they be able to think in terms of relationships and patterns between sounds.
Counterpoint has been a popular approach to composition for centuries. It is believed to have been first widely applied in the 11th century, but examples can be found as early as 2nd-century B.C.E. The term comes from the Italian word for "against," so technically speaking, all polyphony is counterpoint, but modern usage tends to limit the term to multiple independent melodies played simultaneously.
Counterpoint is useful because it allows a composer to expand on a theme or idea while still keeping it coherent and understandable. This can be important when writing dramatic music or music with many changes of mood. By using counterpoint, composers are able to create beautiful pieces without repeating themselves or relying on excess harmonic language (chromaticism or dissonance).
Some famous composers who used counterpoint include Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Claudio Monteverdi, and Henry Purcell.