3.2 Refereed conference paper-A paper accepted for presentation at an academic or professional meeting based on an external peer review procedure and published in conference proceedings. Other conference papers include any other paper given at a professional or academic conference. They may be presented as posters, oral presentations, or workshop materials.
3.3 Refereed journal article-An article that has been reviewed by another scholar (or scholars) for accuracy and scientific rigor and that has been found worthy of publication. Journal articles are published in journals. Conference papers are published in conferences' volume(s).
3.4 Unrefereed paper/work-A work that has not been reviewed by another scholar (or scholars) for accuracy and scientific rigor prior to publication. Such works often arise from the researcher's own ideas or interpretations of data, but they can also be derived from non-academic sources such as book chapters, web pages, or private communications with others within the research community. An unrefereed paper or work cannot be considered acceptable for publication by most academic journals.
Unrefereed papers or works may be submitted to special interest groups within scholarly organizations, such as research conferences or workshops. These groups may provide feedback on the quality of the work and decide whether it is appropriate for presentation at their event.
A refereed journal publishes articles that have been peer reviewed. This indicates that the publications were examined for quality by known academics or experts in the topic before being accepted for publication. Journal articles can sometimes be referred to as "peer reviewed" or "scholarly." Referees are usually required by law, contract, or institutional policy to remain anonymous.
Peer review is an important part of the publication process because it ensures that only high-quality work makes its way into academic journals. Authors hope that reviewers will find their manuscripts worthy of publication so they can advance their fields of interest or research. Reviewers typically report any concerns with an article after reading it. These may include questions about whether the manuscript adheres to certain criteria (for example, methodological rigor) or more general comments about the value of the work (for example, too many studies on this topic). Editors use these reviews to make decisions about what should be done with the papers they publish. For example, they may ask authors to address concerns in their manuscripts or remove them from consideration if they believe them to be non-issues.
Referees do not review the content of manuscripts but rather examine them for scientific integrity and accuracy. They also help editors decide which articles to publish and in what order. Some journals specify that referees must be experts in the field but others allow anyone to review articles.
A scholarly journal is one that focuses on issues of importance to academics and professionals in their fields. These journals are usually considered important for advancing knowledge in their disciplines. They may also be used to disseminate research findings or other information relevant to scholars in those fields.
There are many types of scholarly journals, including scientific, academic, specialized, professional, and popular ones. Most scientific journals are published by universities and other organizations devoted to science. There are also scientific magazines that cover topics in depth from multiple authors/contributors. Academic journals are published by universities and other institutions devoted to teaching and research in specific subjects. They often contain material contributed by professors and researchers in their fields of interest. Specialized journals cover only one subject area or type of publication; for example, birding magazines, fishing magazines, and motorcycle magazines. Professional journals are published by organizations that serve the needs of professionals in their fields. They typically include only original research but may also publish reviews, letters to the editor, book reviews, and others.
Popular journals are written for an audience outside of academia, such as newspapers or magazines.