Value assertions are statements concerning what should be valued and what should not be valued. As a result, they demand justification beyond facts, making emotional arguments (or pathos). Values are virtually always subjective, which means that arguments on them must appeal to the readers' views and opinions. Writing that uses values as its central focus will usually include at least one of the following: pleas for justice, requests for understanding, calls for action, or declarations of belief.
Values can be divided up into two general categories: positive values and negative values. Positive values are those things we claim should be valued, such as truth, beauty, love, freedom, and courage. Negative values are those things we claim should not be valued, such as hate, prejudice, violence, greed, and cruelty. Writers often argue for their own values by using pathos, but that isn't always necessary. For example, a newspaper article might state a particular belief without arguing for it using pathos - for example, "Truth is valuable because it helps us to understand reality and ourselves." Or it might declare a value without arguing for it - for example, "Love is good because it makes people happy."
Values appear in all forms of communication. They are found in advertisements, pamphlets, websites, social media posts, and even in conversations between people.
Value Propositions A value assertion asserts that something is excellent or bad, or that one thing is superior to another. Values can be identified by considering what makes something valuable to people and then applying those principles to other aspects of life. For example, money can be considered a value because it provides security and freedom from poverty.
A claim of value is an assertion that contains a value proposition as well as an argument for supporting or rejecting that proposition. For example, a student might write: "Money is a claim of value because it provides security and freedom from poverty." The student could explain why money is valuable by comparing it to other forms of security (e.g., trust funds) or by discussing examples from history or in today's world.
Writing claims of value requires thinking about what is important to say and doing so while keeping in mind the purpose of arguments. Use your reader's knowledge to help make your point by explaining how something is valued by others and then apply that understanding to the topic at hand. For example, if you were writing about why money is valuable, you could mention ways in which it can be used to secure other benefits (such as food or shelter) and conclude with a note about its role as a store of value in times of economic uncertainty.
Narrative values compel us to consider lives as overarching trajectories or tales, rather than the sum of discrete occurrences. Rather of evaluating the significance of people's lives based on their involvement and success in initiatives, narrative values are employed to evaluate meaning as if the individual were a character in a novel. Lives that have great meaning for individuals are those that have had an impact on many other people or that convey a significant message about human nature.
In addition to helping us understand important people in history, narrative values also help us make sense of our own lives and the lives of others. By considering what has happened to various characters in stories we know, we can come to understand our own place in the world and the role we have played in it; this understanding is essential for personal growth.
Narrative values also help us deal with tragedy and loss. By thinking of each life as a story with a beginning, middle and end, we are able to bear witness to suffering and find comfort in knowing that it has a purpose even if we may not comprehend what that purpose is. Narrative values provide hope by suggesting that life continues beyond the moment we live in.
Finally, narrative values remind us that everyone's life is important, no matter how small or large they may seem from within their own perspective. The story of someone who has made a difference in many people's lives is equally meaningful as that of someone who has influenced only a few.
Claim. When authors or speakers want to make a point, they use arguments known as claims to back up their thesis. Claims are simply the evidence used by authors or presenters to support their claims. Evidence can be described as facts or information that help prove or disprove a claim.
Evidence can be objective or subjective. Objective evidence is found in documents written by others who have no knowledge of the facts at issue, such as news reports and court decisions. Subjective evidence comes from witnesses who have first-hand knowledge of the events in question, such as friends and neighbors who talk about them. Authors use objective evidence when available and relevant, but it must be interpreted within the context of the work as a whole. Authors use subjective evidence to give life to the story and to help explain things not readily apparent from only reading about the incident in the newspaper.
Objective evidence is better for proving or disproving a claim because readers cannot evaluate the credibility of these sources; they just report what they find. For example, if an author wanted to prove that dogs go to heaven, he or she could search online for photos of dead pets and include these images in supporting documentation for his or her claim. Subjective evidence can help explain incidents that might otherwise remain unexplained or misinterpreted without witness accounts, like why someone with mental illness might kill themselves or another person.
How to Write a Value Claim Essay
Bad values are ones that are not grounded in reality, such as being superstitious, socially damaging, or unmanageable. For example, your honesty (a good value) is something you control, yet your popularity (a negative value) is determined by how others see you. Remove the negative figures and concentrate on the positive ones. When you allude to, summarize, paraphrase, or reference another source, include an in-text citation. Every in-text citation in your article must be accompanied by a reference list item. The APA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the year of publication, as in: (Field, 2005)...
In academic writing, a bad value is one that does not help you achieve your purpose. For example, using scare quotes around words or phrases that do not have the same meaning to you as to someone else is counter-productive - it only serves to distract readers from understanding what you are trying to say. Similarly, citing research that supports your position but that isn't relevant to the topic at hand is also ineffective - readers will ignore your secondary sources.
A bad value can also be defined as a value that is unrealistic, illogical, or inappropriate. For example, believing in magic spells or wishing upon stars when seeking good fortune goes against the scientific approach to life. Focusing on what you cannot change or wasting your energy on things outside of your control is unwise - it is better to focus your efforts on those aspects of yourself that you can improve.
At its most basic, a bad value is one that does not serve your purpose. For example, if you want to write an article explaining why honesty is important, then an honest assessment of your own behavior would be a good start.