The comparison, analysis, interpretation, and/or evaluation of literary works is known as literary criticism. Literary criticism is simply an opinion based on facts about a topic, style, place, or historical or political context. Some examples of literary criticism include: Biographical criticism focuses on the life of the author.
Psychological criticism explores the thoughts and feelings of the author or characters.
Political criticism examines the relationships between authors and rulers throughout history.
Social criticism discusses the impact of literature on society.
Historical criticism investigates how certain texts are influenced by or relate to other events or periods in history.
Linguistic criticism analyses language use in texts.
Structure critics look at the organization or structure of texts.
Theme critics search for unifying ideas in texts.
Voice critics identify which character speaks for itself in a text.
Prejudice critics examine instances where literature reflects the prejudices of those who created it.
Aesthetic critics try to understand what makes some books more appealing than others without reference to content.
Genre critics classify novels, poems, or plays according to their shared characteristics.
Form critics analyze the physical appearance of texts.
Literary criticism, according to Abrams (2009:61), is the broad word for disciplines concerned with defining, categorizing, analyzing, interpreting, and assessing works of literature. Literary theory, on the other hand, is the philosophy that guides individuals who analyze other people's works. In other words, literary critics use theories to help them interpret what is written in books.
Theory is used by critics to explain why certain things are important in writing or presenting art. Then they can use these explanations to find other things that may not be obvious. For example, a literary theorist might look at how characters change over time in novels by using science to understand human nature. This allows him to see what kinds of stories will appeal to readers and what kinds won't. He could also use this knowledge to write his own fiction or present ideas from outside sources in a new way.
Critical theory is a name given to a group of related philosophies that have as their goal the examination of society and culture through literature. They aim to reveal social and political relationships behind events and issues in literature.
These critical theories include Marxism, feminism, post-colonialism, and psychoanalysis. They all focus on different aspects of culture and attempt to explain what is going on "under the surface" of texts, including movies, music, and paintings.
The term "critique" is derived from a Greek word that means "judgment." It is a test of judgment. The role of criticism is to analyse the qualities and demerits of their aesthetic quality. Literary criticism is therefore the study, debate, appraisal, and interpretation of literature. Critical thinking is another important function of criticism.
Literary criticism may be defined as the analysis of literature with a view to discovering its qualities and defects and explaining what influences have been at work in its production.
Its objects are books: ancient or modern; national or foreign. But the critic must know something about languages, literatures, or other fields of knowledge which bear on his subject. He must also understand how ideas spread through society by means of printed words. Above all, he must keep in mind that books represent the work of many authors who have different views about life and conduct. Each one of these writers has a right to express himself or herself freely, just as you or I would like to speak our minds without fearing punishment. Criticism allows us to compare different versions of the same story, poem, or idea and to decide for ourselves which we prefer or approve.
Critical thinking is necessary if we are to read profitably and enjoy ourselves. It helps us to judge whether a book is worth reading and to find things in it that are relevant to our own lives.
Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism that is informed by feminist theory or, more broadly, by feminist politics. This manner of thinking and analyzing works may be said to have altered and expanded the canon of what is usually taught, as well as modified and expanded the way literary texts are regarded and examined. It is not limited to writing about women, but includes writers of various sexes and races. However, due to the influence of feminism, most feminist critiques focus on issues concerning women's lives and experiences.
According to some critics, feminist literary criticism began in the 1960s with the work of such scholars as Laura Mulvey, Elizabeth Burns, and Joan Fontcuberta. These critics argued that traditional interpretations of poetry and prose were masculine-centered and thus failed to take account of women's experience in society. They proposed alternative ways of reading poems and stories that would be more sensitive to gender differences.
Other critics claim that feminist literary criticism started much earlier: Mary Wollstonecraft published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792, and Charlotte Brontë wrote Jane Eyre in 1847. Both books challenged conventional ideas about how women should behave and what they could do. In addition, Wollstonecraft's book was one of the first attempts to explain sexism within classical Greek and Roman culture.
Still other critics say that feminist literary criticism emerged from within literary studies itself.
Literary criticism is the systematic examination of literary works and topics. It refers to any debate about literature, whether or not specific works are discussed. Literary critics examine texts from a variety of perspectives, including but not limited to language, style, structure, and context.
Literary criticism can be done privately by individuals who enjoy reading for entertainment or education, or it can be done publicly by scholars in academic settings. Critics may use different methods to analyze literature, such as close reading, critical thinking, and contextual analysis. Close reading focuses on single words or phrases in a text; critical thinking involves using one's judgment to evaluate evidence that comes from different sources (e.g., primary documents like poems or novels, secondary sources like essays or reviews), while contextual analysis considers how individual pieces fit into a larger body of work or tradition.
Critics can be generalists or specialists. Generalists read widely and try to understand various types of texts within their respective fields, whereas specialists focus on one topic within literature and review only that subset of works. Critics can also be autodidacts - those who learn about literature on their own without formal training- or mentors who help them develop their skills and knowledge.
The history of literature is filled with debates about what constitutes good writing, correct interpretation, and adequate representation.