41243 views When referencing material from a source in your own writing, you must provide the author, year of publication, and occasionally the page number of the source, according to APA requirements. This information is referred to as an in-text citation. If there is sufficient space, particularly in longer works, it is acceptable to place additional citations at the end of the text, known as out-of-text citations.
Out-of-text citations are used when referencing material not only outside of the body of the essay but also outside of the primary work itself. For example, if discussing one theory about mental illness in psychology, you could reference other theories about mental illness without repeating the entire abstract. Or, if referring to a case study in the article, you would include a citation for the study. Out-of-text citations are required by most academic journals and help readers find other relevant work that may have been missed by the authors.
In addition to in-text and out-of-text citations, scholars use footnotes to reference material that cannot be included in the main body of the essay or paper. The APA guidelines state that notes should be placed in the margin of the page or between pages. They can also be included in a separate section at the end of the document if space allows.
Finally, scholars use parenthetical citations to refer to sources within the text of their papers.
When you allude to, summarize, paraphrase, or reference another source, include an in-text citation. Every in-text citation in your article must be accompanied by a reference list item. The APA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the year of publication, as in: (Field, 2005). When referencing a book, include the title with page numbers in parentheses like this: (Field, 2005).
In addition to the in-text citation, you should also provide a full citation for every source used in your paper. These citations are required for two reasons: first, so that others can find your sources if they want to; second, so that you do not claim ownership of ideas that belong to other people. If you use another person's idea without acknowledging them, then you should give them credit for it. For example, if I were to write an article about field hockey but did not cite the work of other authors on the sport, others would rightfully assume that I invented field hockey all by myself. However, if I were to acknowledge the contributions of others before using them, then others would know that I was not claiming credit for their work.
Full citations are also useful for documenting sources used in previous papers or articles. If you have cited something in one of your papers, then you should put a link back to the source in each subsequent article you write. This will help others find the original source if they are interested in reading more about the topic.
Using In-Text Citation Citation The author's last name and the year of publication are used in the APA in-text citation format, for example: (Field, 2005). Include the page number for direct quotations, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). Do not include page numbers for indirect quotations or when there is no source material to support the quotation, for example: "Some people say..." or "It is believed that...," respectively.
In academic essays, in-text citations are essential tools for identifying the sources used by the writer. While it may be obvious when reading a book report who wrote which passages, it can be difficult to determine the original authors of quotes or excerpts found in newspaper articles or online posts. In-text citations provide the reader with information about where each quote can be found while still preserving the voice of the speaker.
Citations are also required when using other forms of media, for example, audio recordings, films, and websites. These require additional steps beyond those taken for written works, but are still considered forms of secondary literature. For example, if someone says something in a speech that you want to refer to, you would give their name and the date they spoke along with the location and context within the speech where the comment was made.
Finally, citations are necessary when writing your own work.
Use a paragraph number for sources that do not contain page numbers, such as websites and e-books. Do not include file names or any other identifying information in the citation.
In general, use footnotes rather than in-text citations when possible. An in-text citation may be used instead of a footnote if the citation is one word and the source is either directly involved with the topic of the paper or easily found via simple research. For example, if you are writing about Leonardo da Vinci and want to cite his work on painting, you could simply refer to "da Vinci (2005), p. 7" instead of using an in-text citation because his work on art is so well-known that there is no need to distinguish between different authors' works.
In addition to the parenthetical citation method, the APA also offers two other options for citing sources: endnotes and bibliographies. Endnotes are used to reference material which cannot be included within the main body of the text. For example, you might include within your endnote list all of the publications that have been written by or about your subject over time. These can then be cited within the body of your essay by referring to the appropriate endnote number.
Indent the quotation itself: (Field, 2005, pp. 14-15).
For sources that do not include page numbers, provide the reference as Author Name Year Title. For example, (Friedman, 2005) for a book without pages. Include the subject classification from the source if available. For example, (Economic Journal, 2005) for an article published in a journal.
In general, use only one form of citation. Avoid using both author and date citations because they can be confusing. Also, avoid citing books with no page numbers or periodicals with no issue numbers. Finally, verify information about sources such as titles and classifications before using them. These steps will help you produce accurate bibliographies.
When citing sources in APA format, use the author-date method. Jones (1998), for example, and a complete citation should be supplied in the paper's reference list.
In addition to the writer and date, each source must include a title for the work being cited. This is usually the book or article's title, but it can also be a section or chapter number if one is used. For example, "John Jones wrote an article on presidential power." The reader would then look up "John Jones" in the bibliography or reference list to find more information about the source.
Citations are meant to provide additional information about the source. Therefore, only include details that will help readers understand the source's relevance to the paper's topic or argument. In this case, including the entire title of John Jones' article would be excessive because readers wouldn't need it to evaluate the source's quality or significance. Instead, mention that John Jones wrote an article on presidential power and indicate that this piece is relevant by explaining what kind of power is being discussed (i.e., executive power).
It is important to note that not all sources require a title. For example, newspaper articles are commonly referenced without a title because they can be identified by date and location of publication.