The standard form of an argument is a method of presenting the argument that makes it apparent which statements are premises, how many premises exist, and which proposition is the conclusion. The conclusion of the argument is listed last in standard style. The only exception is when the conclusion is a statement that itself contains another sentence or phrase as part of its content; in this case, the concluding sentence or phrase is placed first.
An argument in standard form has three main parts: a title, a body, and a conclusion. The title gives the reader some indication of what the argument is about. It may be a question, such as "Is ice cream healthy?" Or it may be a statement such as "Ice cream is healthy." Arguments with titles that state questions are called "arguments from authority" because their authors assume that someone who calls himself or herself an expert on the topic can tell them whether or not their conclusion follows from their premise(s). Arguments with titles stating facts are called "arguments from experience" because their authors assume that someone who has experienced something can tell them whether or not it had a particular result. Either type of argument can use examples to help make its point more clearly. They can also use definitions, explanations, or countserexamples to show why their conclusion must be true. All these forms of evidence are considered part of the "body" of the argument.
A conventional form is as follows: premise 1, premise 2, and so on for as many premises as there are; hence, conclusion. Here's an example of a very simple argument in standard form. The word "argument" here means a sequence of sentences each connected to the next by AND or OR connectors.
1. All dogs are animals. Therefore, all animals are mammals.
2. Pigs are animals. Therefore, pigs are mammals.
3. Jackals are animals. Therefore, jackals are mammals.
4. Dogs are animals like pigs. Therefore, dogs are mammals like pigs.
5. You are human; therefore, you are a mammal. (NOT A BIRD OR AN ANIMAL!)
In general, the conclusion states what we know already but cannot yet prove. It may also include what we have already proved by using one of the premises. For example, if we had used premise 4 in the above example, then the conclusion would have said that dogs are mammals like rabbits because we have already seen that dogs are animals like pigs and rabbits are animals like mice.
It is important to remember that arguments in standard form are abstract models designed to show how ideas can be connected together.
Arguments and argument structures Definition An argument is a series of propositions that culminates in a conclusion. Except for the last assertion, all statements are referred to as premises. An argument is valid if the validity of the premises indicates that the conclusion is true. A formal definition of argument can be given as a sequence of sentences (or propositions) each followed by a punctuation mark: this sentence is the premise, these two are the premises, and so on until we get to the final sentence which is the conclusion.
There are three main types of argument forms: categorical, dialectical, and inductive. Categorical arguments state a single conclusion that applies to any or no cases; examples include "all dogs are mortal" and "no cats are immortal." Dialectical arguments give both sides of a debate one chance to win over the audience by showing why each position is not acceptable; examples include "the dog's owner was not responsible for his actions" and "both the cat and the lizard are immune to death." Inductive arguments prove a statement to be true based on evidence collected over time; examples include "every student who takes AP English tests scores higher than her or his own previous score" and "if housecats were allowed into restaurants they would leave behind hair everywhere."
Each type of argument form has its advantages and disadvantages.
An argument's logical form is made up of the logical forms of its component assertions or phrases. These logical structures are particularly useful for determining the correctness of deductive arguments. The issue stems from the fact that the conclusion is correct and all of the premises are correct...
In order for an argument to be correct, all of the premisses must be true and the conclusion must follow from these truths. If even one premise is false, then the argument is not sound and cannot lead to a valid conclusion.
Every argument has a conclusion and a set of premisses or assumptions. The conclusion is what we try to prove with the argument; the premisses are things we use as evidence to prove it. Every argument must have at least one premise because without something to work with, there can be no conclusion drawn.
Even if an argument appears to be invalid, there may be circumstances under which you could actually use it in practice. For example, an argument might be invalid because one of the steps is incorrect but perhaps there was a good reason for doing this. Or perhaps someone cheated by using an invalid argument as a tool for thinking themselves into a corner where they could not escape. In this case, the argument is considered heuristic rather than genuine.
An argument is heuristic when it helps us think through certain problems but does not necessarily lead us to any conclusive results.
Argument Structure: Arguments are divided into two parts: conclusion and evidence. A single conclusion or assertion is formed from a single premise in this case. Evidence is any statement or series of statements that provide details about the conclusion or support it.
Examples: "People say dogs smell like heaven. Well, Tom saw his dog run down the street smelling exactly like a sewer. Therefore, dogs can smell like anything." "Tom wants to go for a walk. It's raining out. He needs an umbrella. Ben has one that he doesn't want to get wet. So, Tom must need one too." Here, the arguments are valid because they follow the exact same pattern as their conclusions. They start with a question (what is Tom doing now?), then answer that question by stating what Tom does and does not know (he saw his dog, so he knows she smells like heaven), and finally conclude that Tom must also smell like heaven (because if she knew he was a bad person, she would never have loved him).
This argument structure is called a modus ponens argument because it uses Modus Ponens, or "mode" logic, which means that it assumes that if a proposition is true, then its logical consequence is also true.
An argument is something that we create and convey. It expresses our thoughtful view and is supported by reasoning and/or proof. It might be judged as sound or unsound, strong or weak, based on the link between these reasons and the proposition or assertion we present as our argument. Reasons are only tools for us to use when trying to convince others.
The term "argument" comes from the Latin word argumentum, which means "a speaking on a matter." In modern usage, the word refers to any statement or series of statements made to persuade someone else of its truth or accuracy. Writing is also considered an argument because it uses words to express a thinker's views.
People often use arguments to try to prove their point of view. They may do this by quoting other people to support their claim or by using logic and reason to produce their own supporting evidence. Teachers may use arguments when they want their students to understand something better by looking at how it works together with other things known already.
Outside of work and play, arguments are used in society to resolve conflicts between ideas. This happens whenever two or more people want to do or believe different things at the same time. For example, if I want you to go with me to the movies tonight-but not if I want to watch TV instead-then this is an argument that we can use to decide what to do.