The fundamental distinction between a novel and a play is found in how each component is formatted. A novel is often written in simple language, but a play is virtually entirely written in conversation. Both genres of work share tale aspects such as characters, storylines, places, and so on. However, while a novel allows for much greater detail in its descriptions than a play can, a play will usually focus on a few key scenes that it believes will bring out the most emotion in its audience.
Also, while a novel requires that the reader make their own way through the story by discovering different elements, a play gives its audiences exactly what they need to know at any given moment. Sometimes this means that the play will seem incomplete until later events are revealed in front of your eyes; but more often than not, it means that the playwright has made the strategic decision to keep certain details secret until later in order to increase the drama when those secrets are finally revealed.
Finally, while a novel requires that the reader make judgments about the characters and their actions throughout the story, a play leaves all interpretation up to its audience. When actors perform a play, they often use techniques such as body language, voice quality, and scene changes to indicate which character is speaking at any given time, but even with these tools, some people will be able to read into the characters' mindsets better than others.
I can explain the distinctions between a play and a novel. The main difference, in my opinion, is time. A play is experienced at a tempo determined by the audience, but a novel is read at the reader's leisure. There are architectural accomplishments that make novels appear spectacular and plays appear self-indulgent...but both art forms use language to express ideas and feelings.
A play is an extended dramatic work performed in a theater or concert hall, while a movie is a series of related scenes appearing one after another on a screen. However, it is possible to write a screenplay that could be acted out by a cast or presented as a stand-alone piece.
Generally speaking, a novel tends to be longer than a play. The most famous play in history is probably "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare; it is only about 95 lines long. Novels usually range from 100 to 800 pages.
Another difference between a play and a novel is that people talk about their experiences in a novel, while they act them out in a play. In fact, someone wrote a book called "My Life as a Geisha" long before Kiyoko Matsumoto went to work as a geisha in Tokyo. The writer was American, not Japanese.
Finally, a play must have a beginning, a middle, and an end. A novel can be completely uninterrupted reading if you want it to.
The formatting of each piece is the primary distinction between a novel and a theater. A novel is often written in simple language, but a drama is virtually entirely written in dialogue. However, a novel tends to have more depth than a play because it can tell a story that can be developed over many pages or even years.
Novels and plays are both stories told through words on a page. While they may have some common elements, such as characters who talk to one another, they are still separate forms of art. For this reason, it is not wrong to call a novel a "drama" or a play a "novel".
When writing a novel, start with a scene. A scene starts with a conflict between two or more characters. It ends when the conflict is resolved or something else happens to change the situation. There should always be a clear beginning and end to a scene.
As you write your novel, think about how you would like people to react to certain events. Would you like them to laugh at some jokes? To cry at some sad moments? That is what will keep your readers interested in the story. As you write these things in, you will discover new ways to develop your plot and your characters.