You're probably most familiar with the bibliographical format known as books. This is how books work: Author's Surname, Author's First Name Title. (Year of Publication) Publisher, Address etc.
Books are the most common form of publication and they are made up of several components including the title page, the copyright page, the abstract, the index, the back cover, and the binding. Each component has its own requirements and duties so it is important to understand what these are before you start typing.
After books come articles which are original works that appear in scholarly journals. Like books, articles have titles, authors, dates, institutions where they were published, and so on. But unlike books, their main focus is not new information but rather discussions or analyses of previous work or ideas. Often times they are used to share findings from one research project or field of study by other researchers. Finally, reports usually consist of collections of papers written by different authors that are then edited and compiled by a staff member of the reporting agency. These can be thought of as books that haven't been published yet!
In all cases, the complete title of the item being cited must be included at the end of the reference. That's why textbooks and journal articles have titles, while reports and books do not.
The following should always be included in book citations:
The author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication are all required in the basic format for a book citation. When referenced in full, edited works will include the editor's name rather than the author's. Periodicals use a variety of formats for referencing articles; the best-known is the Harvard System, which consists of three parts: journal, volume number/issue number, page numbers.
An example of a book citation: John R. Baker, The History of Mathematics: A Comprehensive Account from its Origins to the Beginning of the Modern Era (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996). If you were writing about this book in a sentence or two, it might read like this: "Baker's history of mathematics is an excellent resource."
In academic settings, writers often use citations to refer to other scholars' work when they want to give credit where it is due. For example, if you are using information contained in another scholar's study or article, you should cite that source at the end of your own work. Citing sources helps readers determine what other scholars have found interesting or important about their topic and allows researchers to follow up on other people's ideas.
Book publishers usually provide detailed instructions about how to format references in the back of their books. Often, these instructions are included on a reference page located near the back of the book.
24 Annalists (or Anals) were appointed by the king to record events that occurred during his reign. The first annalist was called "the king's chronicler." His name is not known; however, it has been suggested that he may have been one of Charles the Great's secretaries.
Books and articles written before 1964 are usually cited only by page number. Today, books tend to be cited by chapter and article, while journals and newspapers use a serial number. It is important to provide both a page number and a serial number for each reference. A library catalog can help you find the page number for any book or article because they are listed along with other information about the resource such as its subject matter. For a serial number, ask the journal or newspaper editor for the purpose behind their choice. Some editors may provide them; others may prefer you to cite using normal paragraph punctuation instead. Either way, you should include the word "serial" in your citation.
Book publishers often include a preface when they reprint old works. If there is a new edition then this should also be cited in your bibliography.
A bibliography must include a clear statement of the title or substance of the book. It must include the author's name, the date of publication, the volume number, the name of the publishing firm, sources, and page numbers. To appear decent, all of the material in a bibliography must be correctly organized and sequenced. No part of it should be missing.
Books used as reference materials should be listed with an indication of which parts were most helpful to you. These could be in the form of chapter titles, subheadings, or even notes.
Journal articles are usually cited only by their first word or two, so they can be difficult to identify by text alone. You will need to check online databases for these references. In addition, many journals now publish electronic versions of themselves online. These can be useful resources for finding relevant information. Finally, there are books specifically written for researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (the main subjects covered by academic journals). Lists of recommended reading are often included at the end of research papers, so they can provide useful ideas for further study.
Manuscripts, reports, and presentations that you have presented or published previously should also be referenced. The procedure is exactly the same as for writing a bibliography except that journal articles are cited more fully.
On a bibliography card, you must provide the following information: 1 the author of the book, 2 the title of the book from which you obtained your information, 3 the publisher, 4 the year, and 5 the source media. Assume you're writing a paper about The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. You would create a bibliography card for this paper as follows: John W. Brockton -> The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: A Research Paper. Wiley Publishing Inc. New York. 1991. This is the name of your author and the book he or she wrote. Next, list all sources used in your paper with an entry for each one. These entries should include the author's last name plus the word "et al." (this stands for et alia, which means "and others" in Latin). For example, if you cite multiple articles by the same author but on different topics, list them all under the same entry. Include page numbers in the source citation. Use footnotes instead if there are too many items to fit on one bibliography card.
As you can see, a bibliography card is very useful for listing other books that you consult for your paper. It is also helpful for recording names of people who give you special permission to use certain materials.