In academic writing, an argument is generally a core notion, also known as a "claim" or "thesis statement," that is supported by evidence. In scientific papers, the evidence may be experimental data; in essays written for a general audience, it often takes the form of references to other studies or articles that support or contradict the claim.
An argument consists of two basic parts: a problem space and a solution space. The problem space is all the things that are not true about your topic. For example, if you were writing about the Beatles, the problems space would include their many failures as well as their successes. The solution space is all the things that can be done or discussed with respect to your topic. For example, if you were writing about the Beatles, the solution space would include theories about the causes of their success as well as analyses of their music.
Within these two spaces, there are three different ways of arguing: analytic, synthetic, and inductive. Analytic arguments use logic and reason to prove or disprove claims within the problem space. Synthetic arguments use facts from the solution space to create new claims within the problem space. Inductive arguments use facts gathered from both the problem space and the solution space to come to conclusions about the topic at hand.
In other words, the days of being assigned a "subject" on which you may write anything are over. Today's students want assignments that challenge them intellectually and require critical thinking and analysis skills to be successful.
An argument is any piece of writing that contains three elements: a claim, evidence for the claim, and a conclusion (or recommendation). Arguments can be formal or informal, but they all share these three components.
The goal of writing an effective argument is to persuade your reader that you are right and others should agree with you. To do so, you need to support your argument with relevant facts and ideas, use appropriate language, and be clear and concise.
In academic writing, arguments are usually presented in paragraphs, with a main idea or thesis statement at the beginning and supporting details provided in subsequent sentences or sections. However, essays often include more than one type of argumentation, such as analytical comparisons or causal explanations, which can be introduced separately from the main idea. As with most forms of writing, the choice of how to structure your essay will depend on the subject matter and your own preferences.
Effective arguments are necessary for success in academia and life.
The major claim The major claim of an argument is the objective of the argument—the key notion on which the rhetor is striving to influence the minds of the receivers. A major assertion is sometimes referred to as a thesis statement, but not all thesis-based approaches are created equal. Some arguments rely heavily on logic and scientific evidence while others make more use of emotional responses.
A primary argument is the most important argument in an essay or speech because it seeks to persuade the audience by appealing to their values. It is the first argument that the speaker presents to the listeners and it forms a basis for any further arguments that are to be made. In formal writing, such as in academic essays, the main argument usually emerges from considering what question the reader/listener might have about the topic under discussion. From there, the writer/speaker builds up the details that support his or her conclusion.
In informal writing, such as in letters or speeches, the speaker can include several arguments within the same communication if time allows him or her to do so. For example, a speaker could begin with a general argument (i.e., a value proposition) and then move on to give examples to help explain why this argument is significant, followed by a specific argument (i.e., a cause appeal) to convince the listener to act in some way.
It is important to note that not all speakers present only one argument during a communication.
A claim is anything said that is true, but a thesis is a stated argument that by means of proof supports a specific point of view. A thesis is thus a statement of position with the additional feature that it can be proved or disproved.
A defense is an argument presented in opposition to someone's accusation or allegation. The term comes from the Latin word for "to defend," which in turn comes from the Old French word for "to fight." Thus, a defense is any argument presented in opposition to something being said or alleged.
There are two types of defenses: direct and indirect. In both cases, the aim is to show that some matter of fact is not true; however, in an indirect defense, other things are said in its place. For example, if someone was accused of murdering someone, they could argue that someone else did it instead. This would be an indirect defense because it does not deal with the original matter at hand (in this case, whether or not they murdered someone).
A rebuttal is a response that argues against the conclusion of an argument while agreeing with one or more premises.