There are two types of r: the current 'lower-case' r and the 2-shaped r, which comes after an o or another bent letter. The former is used for words not derived from a Latin root; the latter appears only in scientific and technical publications.
Gothic letters have several different shapes, depending on the type of letter. There are four types of capitals: initial, medial, final, and subjunctive. Initial capitals are used at the beginning of words. Medial capitals appear inside passages from unaccented words to indicate importance. Final capitals are used at the end of sentences, chapters, etc. Subjunctive capitals are found at the beginning of legal documents. They are used to show respect towards authorities.
Each capital has various styles of being raised or lowered. For example, the i in initial capitals is always upright, while the I in final capitals can be seen as either upright or inverted.
Also, some capitals have attached serifs, small lines or extensions that help readers identify words that are part of a larger design element, for example, the M in medial capitals or the U in ultimate capitals. Others do not, such as the a in initial capitals or the e in final capitals.
Composition The royal sign-manual often begins with the sovereign's regnal name (without a number, unless otherwise specified), followed by the letter R for Rex (king) or Regina (queen). As a result, both Elizabeth I and Elizabeth II's sign-manuals read Elizabeth R. When a British monarch was also the Emperor or Empress of India, his or her sign manual included the additional title His/Her Imperial Majesty within small ornate gold frames.
Other common elements include the crown above the royal signature, various symbols of authority below it, and the motto or slogan above the last symbol. The exact order of these elements varies from one manual to another; what follows is typical of those used during the reign of Elizabeth II.
The first part of the manual contains the sovereign's full name. Below this is placed the date on which the manual began to be used, together with an indication of whether it is being used currently by someone in the line of succession. Next comes a list of all the powers held by the monarch at that time. These may be divided into three categories: constitutional powers, ceremonial duties, and honorary positions. Members of the royal family are listed under their respective titles, along with their age at the time the manual began to be used. After them come other members of the royal family, in order of precedence.
The third section consists of badges, mottos, and devices. These items are important because they provide information about the monarch's preferences and traditions.
[image] The tail in typography is the descending, typically ornamental stroke on the letter Q or the descending, frequently curved diagonal stroke on K or R. Tails are descenders on the letters g, j, p, q, and y. [picture] The teardropped endings of strokes in certain font letters. These drops can be seen on Q, K, W, and V.
Formal letters are classified into several sorts. They all have the same layout styles, salutations, and closings. The only difference is in the content of each letter.
Letters can be divided into three main categories: business letters, legal letters, and personal letters.
Business letters are used to communicate important information about business dealings. These letters should be well written so that the sender's message is clear to the recipient. Business letters should include a header section with the date, firm name, and address of the company or individual sending the letter. Then follow a concise statement of the subject matter of the letter. Finally, there should be a concise conclusion stating what action will be taken based on the reply to the letter.
Legal letters are used by attorneys to notify their clients of hearings, trial dates, etc. These letters should include a header containing the name of the attorney filing the letter, along with the name of his or her firm. Below this, there should be a concise description of the subject matter of the letter. Then follow a detailed explanation of why the act being requested has been filed, along with any relevant statutes or cases supporting its legality. Finally, there should be a request that which action be taken.