While the Romantic period was characterized by abstract expression and inward focus, essayists, poets, and novelists of the Victorian era began to reflect on and comment on the realities of the day, such as criticisms of the dangers of factory work, the plight of the lower class, and the treatment of women and children. They also explored new forms of art, including photography and sculpture, that allowed for expressions of emotion and sensitivity not previously possible.
Romanticism in literature can be described as a reaction against the rationalism and materialism of the Enlightenment and the emergence of a new sense of personal identity and self-expression. It is also related to other movements such as neo-classicism and baroque music. The main characteristics are optimism about human nature and faith in the power of art to change people's lives for the better.
Victorian romanticism can be seen as beginning in 1798 with the publication of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "Kubla Khan". This early work inspired many poets and artists during this time period. Later poets and writers who are considered important contributors to the development of Victorian romanticism include William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, John Keats, and George Gordon, Lord Byron. Artists associated with this movement include Thomas Cole, John Constable, Caspar David Friedrich, Joseph Mallord William Turner, and Richard Wagner.
The Romantic Era was a European aesthetic and literary movement that began around the end of the 18th century. The primary distinction between Romantic and Victorian poetry is that Romantic poets worshipped and venerated nature, but Victorian writers saw nature as a more practical and less idealized angel. The main distinction between Romantic and Victorian painting is that Romantic artists described reality with intense emotion, while Victorian artists focused on detail and technique.
Other differences include: Romanticism was an international movement, while Victorian literature is very nationalistic; also, Victorians were more concerned with social decorum than with political change or revolution.
Romantic literature is known for its emphasis on imagination, mystery, and passion. Writers such as Byron, Coleridge, and Keats used their imagination to create worlds that were far removed from daily life, and they often did this by combining fact with fiction or history with fantasy. Mystery plays an important role in many Romantic poems because the use of language can be powerful when words are not understood. For example, when Lord Byron wrote "Darkness," he did not mean darkness as in no light, but rather he meant darkness as in unable to see. Passion can be defined as a strong feeling or emotion, and many Romantic poems are about love because love is capable of producing pain and suffering and thus it can be considered a form of drama.
Victorian literature is known for its realism and attention to detail.
The phrase "Romantic Era" refers to the literature of the first part of the nineteenth century. During this period, writing began to move in channels that were not wholly new but stood in stark contrast to typical eighteenth-century literary practice. Poets and novelists turned away from the strictures of classical tradition and toward a mode of expression that was emotional rather than logical, subjective rather than objective.
In poetry, the Romantic poets rejected the strict metrical rules of antiquity in favor of a free verse that often sounded like singing. These poems usually dealt with such subjects as love, death, and nature. The most famous poet of the era is William Wordsworth; others include Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Clare, and Robert Burns. Women played an important role in the development of Romanticism; many poems were written by women about women's experiences in love and marriage. The novels of the time are more formal in style; they typically begin with a character introduction followed by a series of scenes in which the character exhibits or reacts to something. Jane Austen is perhaps the best-known writer of this period; others include Charlotte Brontë, Ann Radcliffe, and Mary Shelley.
The Romantic Era ended in 1815 with the coming of peace after years of war between Britain and France.