Academic sources, also known as scholarly sources, include books, academic journal articles, and published expert reports. Academic information is often peer-reviewed, which indicates that it has been checked for accuracy and quality by experts in the field before being published. Information from academic sources should be used with caution because not all publishers are committed to providing accurate information full-time staff members of many universities have their own agendas which can influence what gets written about a particular subject matter.
When writing about a topic you learn about through academic sources, it is important to understand that scholars come to different conclusions about them. Even experts in the same field can have different views on the same topic. This is why it is important to read more than one source when writing about topics found in academic papers. You should try to find other perspectives on the issue so you can see how others have interpreted the source material. Doing so will help you avoid painting with a broad brush when discussing ideas that have been put forward in academic papers.
As well as being accurate, an academic source needs to be relevant to your audience if it is going to be useful when writing about a topic. For example, someone studying history would not benefit from reading about biology research, nor would they want to spend time reading about topics that aren't related to their chosen field of study.
Scholarly sources are published by academics and other specialists who provide fresh research findings, hypotheses, analyses, insights, news, or summaries of existing knowledge to contribute to knowledge in a certain topic. Primary or secondary research might be used as scholarly sources. Primary research is original work done by the scholar herself while secondary research uses works written by others as sources of information.
An academic source is considered reliable if it is one of the following:
1 A peer-reviewed article that has been reviewed by other scholars for accuracy and logic before publication
2 A non-peer-reviewed article in a respected journal that has been reviewed by other scholars to verify that it meets quality standards
3 An unpublished document (such as an internal study or a chapter from a book) that has been created by the researcher himself/herself rather than copied from another source
4 A website with clear instructions on how to reproduce its results
5 Any other source that has been determined to be trustworthy by other scholars or experts in the field.
6 Your own personal opinion.
If you have doubts about the reliability of a source, look for ways to test it. See what other researchers say about it. Try to replicate their results.
Scholarly books, essays, and webpages are all possible. Sources may be primary—that is, obtained directly from people who know the subject well—or secondary, which means taken from other sources.
Books are often considered the highest form of scholarship because they use evidence from multiple sources to prove their points while articles usually only discuss one aspect of a subject. Webpages can be used as resources or even as sources; for example, Wikipedia is a popular resource but also uses its own set of criteria to determine what content should be included.
News items and announcements are examples of sources that might not seem scholarly at first glance but actually are providing new information about the topic. News stories are often based on studies or surveys conducted by professionals, while announcements generally come from organizations that may or may not be reputable. It's important to understand that everything you read in the media needs to be treated with caution until proven otherwise.
Finally, blogs and journals are forms of literature that have become essential in today's academic world. A blog is simply a website that updates regularly, so articles can be scholarly sources if they present new facts or ideas or critical analyses of topics within their respective fields.