A. [The author, title, location of publishing, publisher, date of publication, and page or pages on which the quotation or information is located are all included in a footnote.]
B. [The same as part A, with the addition that information about the source of the quotation or information may also be included.]
C. [The author's name, the title of the work being quoted, the location of publishing, the publisher, the date of publication, and the page number(s) on which the quotation appears are all included in a footnote.]
D. [The same as part C, with the addition of an indication of the source of the quotation or information (e.g., "From John Doe, A Book for All Ages," or "From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.")]
E. [Only the page number(s) on which the quotation appears is included in a footnote.]
F. [Only the source of the quotation is included in a footnote.]
G. [Any other information not covered by parts A-F should appear in a brief text string in the footer area of the page facing the quotation.]
Footnote format and examples: author's first and last name, main source description, date, secondary source title, ed. First and last names of the editor, place of publishing (Publisher, Year), inclusive pages (Number). For example: John Smith (Publisher B, year) page 123-145.
It is important to distinguish between footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes are annotations that appear at the bottom of a page. They usually refer to specific words or phrases within the text. Endnotes are annotations at the end of a reference list or bibliography. They often include information about multiple sources for one idea or fact.
Primary sources include documents written by the people being studied; they are an essential part of any historical investigation. Secondary sources include books that discuss or analyze the data in the primary sources; these texts are needed to give readers insight into the research process and to help them understand the evidence presented in the primary sources.
Footnotes are used to identify primary and secondary sources. When referencing a secondary source, it is necessary to provide the reader with enough information so they can verify the claim being made. This is done by inserting the citation into the text using appropriate punctuation marks and formatting styles.
Footnotes should be used to convey more information about the text to the reader. A bibliography will give the reader with complete facts about the work, including when and where the source was published. A footnote may merely provide the source's title. However, as most bibliographies are also works in themselves, using notes within them is highly recommended.
The footnote begins with the citation number, followed by a period, and then the citation itself. The author's name and the title of the piece are always included in the citation, which is always followed by a period. All relevant publishing information is also included in full notes (which varies by source type).
Footnotes are indicated by using the “footnote” symbol, which appears at the end of a sentence or paragraph. Footnotes should be typed on separate lines from the rest of the text. They should contain only citations and no interpretation of the cited material.
In articles, essays, and reviews, footnotes are used to support comments or explanations made in the body of the work. In books, however, footnotes are used primarily for sources. These may be authors' names or titles of publications or books, people's names, places, dates, or any other information that helps explain the context of the quoted material.
In your paper, when you refer to information in another document or website, you can use a footnote to tell the reader more about the topic. For example, if you were writing about Michel de Montaigne and wanted to include some information about his life, you could put it in a footnote.
Footnotes are useful tools for readers to quickly find additional information related to the topic at hand. As such, they should not be used indiscriminately.
A footnote is a reference, explanation, or comment that appears on a printed page below the main text. Footnotes are often used in research papers and reports to recognize the sources of data and quotes that appear in the text. According to Bryan A. Garner, "footnotes are the mark of a scholar." They provide the reader with information about the history of the idea being presented and they help keep the paper or report's argument organized by connecting it to other ideas within the work.
There are two types of footnotes: descriptive and explanatory. Descriptive footnotes give information about the source material; for example, they may indicate the author's name or a date when the material was collected or compiled. Explanatory footnotes explain how or why something was done a certain way. For example, an explanatory footnote might state the author's name and address, followed by "Source: John Doe, History of America, 1580-1920 (McGraw-Hill, 1970) p. 252." This type of footnote allows the reader to understand what was done without having to go back to the original source.
Descriptive and explanatory footnotes should be typed directly under the passage where they are needed. If space is an issue, you can break up one long footnote into multiple paragraphs by inserting blank lines so the reader will know where one paragraph ends and another begins.