The literary movement Negritude arose from the intellectual milieu of Paris in the 1930s and 1940s. It is the result of black writers banding together to affirm their cultural identity through the French language. Authors like Claude McKay and Langston Hughes paved the way for black expressiveness. Their work challenged stereotypes about blacks and exposed prejudices that existed within France and among some black Americans.
Negritude also drew inspiration from other cultures, particularly Arab culture. The concept was first put forward by black African-American poet and author Jean-Paul Maratécija as a means of defining his own identity and place in society. He believed that since blacks were descended from slaves taken captive in Africa, they needed to find a way to survive and thrive outside of that continent.
Maratécija's ideas spread across Europe where many black intellectuals took up residence. They too wanted to know more about themselves so they could lead meaningful lives.
Negritude encouraged blacks around the world to speak about issues affecting them directly rather than relying on white commentators to do it for them. This act of speaking for yourself is what makes literature unique and important. By writing about their experiences, poets such as McKay and Hughes helped break down racial divisions between blacks and whites in America. They also showed their peers in France and elsewhere that blacks could be just as creative as anyone else.
Negritude, also known as French Negritude, was a literary movement in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s that emerged among French-speaking African and Caribbean writers in Paris as a protest against French colonial control and assimilation strategy. They identified with black Africa because of its independence from France and the belief that blacks were "the first to suffer" from colonialism.
Negritude's founders included poets Léopold Sédar Senghor and Aimé Césaire, as well as writers Jean-Paul Sartre, Nathalie Sarraute, and Maurice Thorez. The group sought to promote an identity distinct from both Europe and the New World by focusing on black sources of culture, especially Africa. Its proponents also called for an end to slavery and colonialism.
Senghor is considered the father of Negritude because he was one of the first intellectuals to use the term and define what it meant for France and Africans alike. He did so in his book Le Negresco (The Black Boy), published in 1923. In it, he described how the lives of blacks in France were being shaped by racism and discrimination. This was something that neither slaves nor ex-slaves could escape. It was therefore important for them to find a way to understand their condition so that they could change it.
Negritude was an anti-colonial cultural and political movement formed in the 1930s in Paris by a group of African and Caribbean students who aspired to recover the value of blackness and African culture. Its founders included Léopold Sédar Senghor, Césaire de Barlé, Albert Camus, and Maurice N'Koselezwi. They identified as nègres (a French term then used to refer to people of Black African descent) or africains and were influenced by the growing nationalism within Africa and Asia.
Their goal was to create a world where blacks could be proud of their identity without having to rely on others for recognition. Although they came from different countries, cultures, and classes, they shared a desire to see Africa and its descendants free from European colonialism and racism.
They believed that since Africans had been colonized by Europeans, therefore all things African should be viewed with suspicion until proven otherwise. Because of this, the movement advocated self-determination for colonies, which led to the creation of nations such as Nigeria and Senegal, rather than independence from Europe.
Although they never achieved widespread support within France or their other countries of origin, the movement has become important within black nationalist circles in France and elsewhere.