When you allude to, summarize, paraphrase, or reference another source, provide a parenthetical citation. Every in-text reference in your work must be accompanied by a corresponding item in your Works Cited list. The MLA parenthetical citation style, for example, utilizes the author's last name and a page number; for example (Field 122). It is recommended but not required that you include the year published if no date is available.
In addition to the author's last name and page number, the parenthetical citation may include the title of the referenced work, an abbreviation for the term used to describe it, and/or the location of publication. For example: (Field et al., 1992, p. 10) or (Hoffman, 2011, chap. 5). Abbreviations are acceptable only if they are widely used by scholars in your field. If an abbreviation is not found in a standard dictionary, give its full form along with its definition. Include the publisher's name if it is different from the publisher of your own work.
Works cited within the text should have individual entries in your bibliography, including information about when and where the work was published. These entries should include the author's last name, the title of the work, and the location of publication, as well as an indication of how the reader can obtain more information on the topic addressed in the work. For example, (Langston, 1995) is an appropriate entry for a book chapter.
The author-page standard is followed by the parenthetical citation or in-text citation in MLA style; it needs both the author's last name and the page number. The example below shows how to format a book reference with both the author's last name and the page number.
Annie B. Parker (1997) describes a novel approach to teaching reading law students use. She quotes one lawyer who says that "reading IS understanding," and another who adds that "to understand something, you need to read about it." (p. 7) [Annabel K. Lee is the author of A New Approach to Teaching Reading Law Students Use.]
References used within the text of your paper should be included in your bibliography. These references can be books, articles, websites, or records from administrative bodies such as court decisions. They should be listed in order of appearance in the text with each item referenced using proper citation formatting. For example, if the first time that reference #5 appears in the text it is mentioned as "Reference 5", then that reference should be cited as follows in the bibliography: Reference 5. See also reference 6, which refers to the same source.
It is important to note that some sources require different citation formats than others.
MLA parenthetical citations require the author's last name and the page number to be enclosed in parentheses. If no author is given, use the first few words of the title or webpage. Use no p, pp, or commas. Put the year within brackets . It is not necessary to include book titles in parenthetical citations, but they are recognized by most search engines.
In your writing, use parenthetical citations to refer to the works of others. When a sentence contains a quotation or paraphrase, this style includes presenting relevant source information in parenthesis. For example: "The poet John Donne said, 'No man is an island.'"
MLA guidelines recommend using endnotes/bibliography pages to provide detailed sources for quotations and paraphrases. Endnotes can be used at the end of your paper, but they can also be inserted within the text of your essay by using page numbers. This method is called inline citing.
When referencing multiple sources, it is appropriate to use in-text citations followed by a hard return. Then, add a separate reference list at the end of your document. In both the in-text citation and the reference list, make sure to include the author's last name along with the first word of the specific passage that you are referring to. This will help the reader locate the source quickly.
Titles of books, movies, and plays are not included in parenthetical citations. If you are including book titles in your analysis, it is recommended to do so through extensive use of footnotes.