The author's last name and the particular page number for the information quoted are usually included in the parenthetical citations. For example, (Barton 1997) would mean that information was found on page Batson of volume 7 of their series.
In addition to this information, there are three other elements that often appear in parenthetical citations in articles published in academic journals: reference lists, abstracts, and glossaries. These elements are discussed below.
Reference lists consist of an alphabetical list of all the sources used by the author during his or her research process. The bibliography is therefore the final product of the researcher's work. In an article that uses several sources for its information, the reference list should include details about how many pages were taken from each book or article.
Abstracts are brief descriptions of the subject matter contained in each chapter of a book or article. They are typically written by someone with expertise in the field who can identify the most important topics covered in the text. Abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology specific to the field under discussion may also be included in the abstract.
Glossaries are small dictionaries used to clarify terms that may not be familiar to the reader.
The author-page standard is followed by the parenthetical citation or in-text citation in MLA style; it needs both the author's last name and the page number. The example below shows how to format a book reference with both the author's last name and the page number.
Annie B. Parker (1997) describes a novel approach to teaching reading to students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Page 129.
References used as footnotes or end notes are also known as parenthetic citations or parenthetically cited sources. They appear at the end of a sentence or within the text and consist of the author's last name and the page number where the information can be found. In academic writing, references should be accurate and using appropriate styles for different types of sources. An example of an inappropriate reference would be Smith (2009), which is not in MLA style because it does not have an author list nor does it have a page number. A proper reference would be Smith, J. (2009). Introduction to statistics using R Language. New York: Wiley.
In addition to the parenthetical citation, books that are referred to often or continually throughout the text may also be referenced by chapter or section.
A parenthetical reference usually comprises the author's last name and the page number, or the title of the piece if there is no author. This depends on how you use the author's material and the information you have about the source. Parenthetical references should be placed at the conclusion of sentences. They are used to identify sources that support specific points made in essays or articles.
The three main types of parenthetical references are as follows: footnotes, endnotes, and citations. Footnotes are numbered sequentially and located at the bottom of the page in a special section at the end of the document. Endnotes are similar to footnotes but appear at the end of the essay or article instead. Citations are placed in the text and include the author's name, the date written or printed, and the source's title or full citation. These can all appear in either footnotes or endnotes.
In general, authors use footnotes for scholarly work while editors prefer endnotes because they do not disturb the flow of the text. However, either method can be used by non-scholars if they wish to refer to another work by its title only without needing to read every detail about the source. In cases where the source is widely known or has been previously referenced in the text, then it is not necessary to give a full citation.
The needed source information in a parenthetical citation is determined by (1) the source media (e.g., print, online, DVD) and (2) the source's entry on the Works Cited page. Any source information you include in-text must match the source information on the Works Cited page. If there is no entry for the source on the Works Cited page, you cannot use it.
For example, if your source is an article in The New York Times, use these elements in the reference: Print edition, November 12, 2009. Online version available at www.nytimes.com/2009/11/13/books/review/Gould-t.html. "DVD" would not be applicable because there is no entry for this source on the Works Cited page.
Keep in mind that if you are using an unreferenced quotation or excerpt, you do not need to provide any source information other than the date. For example, if a quote appears in a newspaper article, but there is no indication of its origin, only the date, then you could cite the passage as follows: Gould, "Which two pieces of information are required in a parenthetical citation for a summary from a source?"
If you are citing multiple sources or passages from the same source, it is best to list them all in a single reference rather than using separate references for each one.