Luke's author was a well-educated literary figure who wrote in colloquial Greek. If the Gospel bearing his name and the Acts of the Apostles were written by the assigned author, they were most likely written during or immediately after the Jewish rebellion (66-73 ce).
Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian mention a book called "The Acts of Paul," which may have included some of St. Paul's letters. This would date the writing before A.D. 100.
Some scholars believe that Luke was also the author of the third gospel, but this is only speculation. It is more probable that he used other writers for specific portions of the book.
Luke was a physician by trade who lived in Antioch in Syria. The Gospels say he was a companion of St. Peter and St. James, the sons of Zebedee. According to Acts, he went to Jerusalem with those two apostles and the rest of the original twelve disciples. He must have been born before A.D. 50 since he died around A.D. 75. His career as an evangelist probably began about A.D. 34 when Saul became Paul. From these facts we can conclude that Luke was a devout Christian who wanted others to know about Jesus' death and resurrection. He is considered the author of the Third Gospel and a portion of the Book of Acts.
According to popular belief, the physician Luke, a buddy of Paul, wrote the Gospel of Luke and Acts. This view of authorship was shared by nearly all ancient sources—Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Muratorian Canon all considered Luke as the author of the Luke-Acts. Even some non-Christian writers such as Cicero and Atticus mentioned by name the author of these two books.
Modern scholars generally accept this tradition but also point out problems with it. First of all, there is an argument over whether "Luke" is a proper name or not. Some believe it is, others think it is not. If it is a proper name, then it must be someone famous before Jesus Christ. The most popular candidate is Lukesiaeus, a Jewish historian from Syria who lived in the first century AD. He has been suggested because he is known from other sources and because his surname sounds like "Luke". However, there are other candidates such as a certain member of the Roman Senate or even a fictional character.
Secondly, there is a question about why would a friend of Paul want to deceive people by claiming himself as the author of these books? It is possible that Luke composed both books during Paul's imprisonment in Rome and then showed them to him before sending them to Asia Minor where they were used to convert people to Christianity. This would explain why he claimed to be the author of these books - to help spread Christianity.
Luke, what did you write? Luke composed two works: the third gospel, which is an account of Jesus' life and teachings, and the Book of Acts, which is an account of the rise and extension of Christianity following Jesus' death and near the conclusion of Paul's mission. Both books were written in a Greek language called "New Testament Greek."
The New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which was the common language of the day. However, since most people didn't understand this language, translations into other languages were made for their benefit. Today, the New Testament is translated into over 90 different languages.
In addition to these two books, others have been attributed to Luke including: a letter (also known as a "epistle") that some scholars believe may be by Luke himself; a book of laws called the "Acts of Theophilus"; and a history of Rome called the "History of Lucius Annaeus Seneca". However, none of these writings have survived today.
Luke is one of the few writers in the New Testament who wasn't an apostle, but instead he was a companion of Paul who helped him with his missionary work. Luke appears in Acts 16:10 as one of the believers who went to Athens after Paul released him from prison there. From there, it is believed that Luke left for Antioch in Syria where Paul had sent him earlier to help out with church affairs there.
The Gospel of Luke was written to provide a credible and detailed historical chronicle of Jesus Christ's life. In the opening four lines of chapter one, Luke stated his reason for writing. Luke devoted close attention to detail, not just as a historian but also as a medical expert...
By language and education, he was unmistakably Greek. He authored his writings, which he dedicated to Theophilus, in the Greek language and style. The introduction in both Luke and Acts is a style that Greek writers have long utilized. It provides information about the author and audience.
Luke was a physician by trade who lived during the reign of Augustus (27 B.C. - A.D. 14). He wrote his gospel between A.D. 80 and 100 and his history of the world from creation to his own time around A.D. 125. He probably obtained his knowledge of medicine from physicians who treated patients at home instead of in hospitals. His knowledge of anatomy came from dissecting animals for teaching purposes rather than from operating on humans.
Although historians debate how much control the Roman emperor had over foreign affairs, there is no doubt that Rome was involved in global politics. And it is known that Emperor Augustus sent letters to cities throughout the empire requesting information about crimes and offering rewards for information about criminals. This shows that he was interested in what was happening outside his own realm and wanted to know more about people who were living abroad.
It is also known that Luke was in prison for helping Paul escape from Rome into Spain. After being set free, he traveled with Paul and then went back to Rome alone.