Prior to the invention of printing presses, "upper case" and "lower case" letters were referred to as "majuscule" and "minuscule," respectively, which makes sense. If you take a look at your keyboard, you'll see that all caps letters are larger than lowercase letters. That's because printers of the time could not differentiate between uppercase and lowercase letters; they printed them all in one size so they'd be easier to read.
Before printing presses, people wrote using quills or styluses on wax tablets. Because all these letters were done with the same tool, they tend to look alike, even after considerable time has passed. So it wasn't until later that printers began to distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters. They did this by putting more pressure on the paper when writing upper case letters, thereby causing them to spread out farther than lowercase letters.
Here is an example from 1450: "BELIEVE ME THOUGHT." We can see that the printer has tried to write "Thought" like a capital T, but because there was no distinction between capitals and lowercases at this time, he didn't know how to do it so he just kept typing as if it were a capital letter.
The original writing style used uppercase (or upper case) letters. Majuscule letters are another term for writing inside well-defined upper and lower borders. There are two more common* number styles: line or titling numbers or uppercase numbers, and oldstyle or lowercase numerals. Oldstyle numerals look like lowercase digits with the addition of a serif at the bottom.
Upper and lower case letters have different shapes and therefore represent different values when calculating with mathematics. This is why numbers are usually written in capital letters in textbooks and articles; it makes mathematical calculations easier to do.
In English text, there are only upper case letters because lower case letters are used to type accented characters. So accenting numbers would be difficult without using both upper and lower case letters.
In French text, numbers are usually written in small caps because large capitals are used to type accented letters.
In German text, numbers are usually written in boldface because normal face is used for words.
In Italian text, numbers are usually written in italics because regular text faces are used to write words that begin with numeric characters.
The words "uppercase" and "lowercase" derive from the way print shops were set up hundreds of years ago. Individual pieces of metal tile were stored in boxes known as cases. The smaller letters, which were utilized the most, were preserved in lower case since they were simpler to grasp. Larger letters were saved for less frequently used words or phrases. These days, we use computers to create documents; therefore, it doesn't matter what case you use because there's no printer ready to grab them off the screen.
Here are the different case styles: capital letters, small capitals, sentence case, title case, and decimal case.
Capital letters are used for main titles, sub-titles, and chapter headings. They look good printed in black on a white background and serve as an attention-getter. Capital letters are also used on signs posted at airports, bus stations, and other large facilities to call attention to important information.
Small capitals are used for section headers, paragraphs, and captions. They make your text seem more professional and important.
Sentence case is used when writing sentences one after another without any punctuation marks except for periods at the end of sentences. This case style is commonly used for short stories, journal articles, and memos. It is also popular with writers who want their work to appear more casual and friendly.
Why are there uppercase and lowercase letters? Case in letters relates to whether letters are written in a larger uppercase form, also known as majuscule or capital letters, or a smaller lowercase form, also known as minuscule or little letters. There are 22 letters in the English alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.
Upper case letters are used for nouns and adjectives, while lower case letters are used for verbs, pronouns, and adverbs. Thus, "capital punishment" uses upper case letters, while "to punish" uses lower case letters. Also, names of books, articles, films, and other publications are usually given overlines below the title mark to indicate that they are proper nouns.
Before printing, type was set in woodblocks and then carved into shape. The carver would work from an initial (a first letter of the word) until it reached its final form. When setting up a piece of type, the printer would need to decide how to set the remaining letters in the word. If it were an upper case letter, then it would need to be drawn with greater care so that it did not run off the page; if it were a lower case letter, then it could be formed more quickly and roughly.
Lowercase versions of the three letters are a, b, and c. Uppercase versions are A, B, and C.
Letter case is the contrast in written representation of certain languages between uppercase or capital letters (or more officially majuscule) and smaller lowercase characters (or more formally minuscule). All modern European languages but Albanian use capital letters, while Arabic, Dari, Kurdish, Persian, and Urdu also use lowercase letters.
In English, which uses both upper- and lowercase letters, words that are identical except for their case are treated as synonyms. Words fall into three cases: vocative, accusative, and genitive. The nominative case is the default case; it contains the subject of the sentence and any necessary information for identifying the person or thing being talked about. The other two cases are used to indicate the object of a sentence or the purpose for which something is done.
Vocative: Used when calling someone by name. Example: "Joe!" "Yo!" "Hey, Joe!" "Jōe!" "Ejē!" Genitive: Used to refer to something as belonging to someone or something. Example: "The book is George's." "George owns a car." Accusative: Used to identify who or what is affected by a verb. Example: "I hit the ball" "You hit the ball." "He/she/it hit the ball."
Upper-case letter noun definitions One of the huge alphabetic letters used as the initial letter in writing or printing proper names, as well as for emphasis on occasion. Capital letters, majuscule letters, uppercase letters, etc.
Letter case (or merely case) is the contrast in written representation of certain languages between uppercase or capital letters (or more officially majuscule) and smaller lowercase characters (or more formally tiny). These include English, French, German, Spanish, and some other languages.
Capitalization is the practice of making all or most of the letters in a word capitalized. Capitalization affects how words are perceived by readers and listeners. For example, people understand "Why do birds sing?" as asking about bird song rather than why birds sing because that phrase is perceived as a question. Similarly, people understand "Why do birds sing?" as asking about why birds sing rather than why do birds sing because that phrase is perceived as a statement.
Small letters are used to write words that cannot be represented in an entire sentence without changing position of another word (e.g., cause & effect, there's no way to fit them into one sentence without moving something else). They are usually formed by combining lower-case letters with diacritics: á é í ó ú ü. There are also special letters called small capitals which are used to represent words that cannot otherwise be expressed in English (e.g., small i for interest). These are formed by setting apart the first character of the word with a raised surface (usually but not always ).