For works with three or more authors, "et al." is used in the first in-text citation. There are up to 20 writers cited: Give the surnames and initials of up to 20 writers in the reference list. Names of websites: Website names, as well as page titles, are now included. For example, Google would be cited as "Google Inc.", not just "Google".
Et al. is a contraction of the Latin phrase "et alii," which meaning "and others." Even if only one person is included in the citation, the use of et al. indicates that three or more people wrote, edited, or worked on the work. When used with two names, this term suggests that those individuals are among a group of others also mentioned.
In academic writing, including research papers and articles, et al. is used when listing multiple authors for a single work or event. The word et al. by itself means "and others"; thus, it is a broad term that can be used with any number of people. It is not necessary to list all the authors of a piece of work. In fact, doing so often results in confusion because different researchers may have different ideas about who should be included in the list. Using the term et al. makes it clear that more than one person is involved in the project.
When citing works with multiple authors, it is important to differentiate between those who contributed in a major way and those who did not. Some scholars argue that you should always include everyone who has some connection to the work, but that is entirely up to you. If you do choose to include non-authors such as advisors or friends who helped bring the work together then you should define their role clearly in your text (e.g., "Johnathan et al. defined the problem", rather than just "Jonathan").
"Et al." is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase "et alia," which means "and others." When referring to a source having numerous writers, it is used in academic citations: Hulme et al. (1990) = Hulme, White, and Taylor.
It may also be used as a courtesy title before a list of names: Et al.-Orsini della Rocca (1891). = Orsini della Rocca.
Finally, it can be used as a suffix meaning "and others": Et al.-Solvay Institut (1928). = Solvay Institute.
In addition, "et al." is used in citations where there are many authors but they are not all cited individually: Blum et al. (2001), Curran et al. (2003), Fantini et al. (2005), Gensler et al. (2008), etc.
It is not necessary to reference every author on a work. In fact, doing so can be considered academic misconduct known as "honorary citing" or "quoting yourself." However, if you are including colleagues in research studies or articles, it is appropriate to cite them. They should not be cited individually but rather with the abbreviation "et al."
For sources with three or more authors, always use "et al." in MLA format. This holds true for both in-text and Works Cited citations. If you are using a publisher-provided list of authors, make sure that they include all contributors who may not have been acknowledged elsewhere in the text.
Et alia is also acceptable to refer to a third party work as well as our own research. For example, if I were writing an essay on the works of Shakespeare and wanted to reference some studies conducted by other scholars, I could write: "According to Booth, Shakespeare's knowledge of life on the stage came from his involvement in several performances during his lifetime."
Booth's study focuses on how this knowledge is presented in the plays. He therefore uses theatrical terminology to explain aspects of Shakespeare's work that do not necessarily relate to performance. Since Booth has published his findings in a book called "The Theatre of Honor," I would cite this as my source by writing "Booth (1996) argues that..."
Our own research agrees with that of Booth in many ways, but we go further by analyzing different types of theater including masques, travesties, and games.
As well as others When citing a source with two authors in APA Style, list both. Cite the first author followed by "et al." when there are three or more writers. The use of "et al." in the reference list is not recommended by APA. Instead, list up to 20 writers in their entirety. If you have cited more than 20 authors, don't include the word "and" between each citation.
For works with three or more authors, the in-text citation is now abbreviated beginning with the first citation. Only the first author's name and "et al." are included. In the reference entry, surnames and initials for up to 20 writers (rather than 7) should be supplied. For example, (Etzioni et al. 1975) would be entered as Etzioni and J. on page 5.
For sources with three or more authors, always use "et al." in MLA format. In MLA format, use et al.
|Number of authors||In-text citation example||Works cited example|
|1–2 authors||(Smith and Davies)||Smith, Joshua, and Robert Davies. …|
|3+ authors||(McDonnell et al.)||McDonnell, Frederick, et al. …|
Using et al. implies that you are including all authors except for one or two.
Et alia is an ancient abbreviation for et alii, which means "and others." It's used when referencing more than two authors.
The term "et al" was originally used by scholars in the English-speaking world to indicate that names were omitted from a work cited in the bibliography because they had been included in the text. Today it is commonly used by researchers to indicate that they have considered other people involved in the study or article, even if they don't include everyone's name. For example, an investigator might write "I focused on studies conducted by others as well as those conducted by myself."
As long as you are not omitting any important sources, using et al is acceptable in a scholarly context.
However, et al is not permitted in MLA Style. In your references list, you should only refer to other authors by last name.
This does not mean that you have to use all of the authors' last names on each reference page though.