A summary is a synthesis of a piece of writing's essential ideas, expressed in your own words (i.e., paraphrased). A summary can be written as a stand-alone assignment or as part of a broader paper. When summarizing, take cautious not to duplicate the exact terminology of the original source. Instead, provide your own language to describe the subject matter.
Summary paragraphs should be concise and clear. They should not repeat information contained in the original article but rather offer a reader-friendly recap of the key points made by the source. It is acceptable to use examples from the article to support your summary points.
Generally speaking, academic papers are summarized before they are published, so they can be more widely distributed via e-mail or online databases. For example, a researcher might submit a paper for review before publishing it in order to receive feedback on its content and clarity. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the editor will generally send a message indicating this has been done. The author would then need to create a short abstract, which provides readers with an overview of the paper's main ideas without repeating information found in the full text.
Academic papers are often summarized in conference presentations too. These tend to be shorter than full papers but no less important as they can help attract attention from potential sponsors or co-authors.
Finally, summaries are used by editors when deciding which articles to include in academic journals.
A summary is a record in the words of the reader that presents the key points of a piece of writing, such as a newspaper article, a chapter of a book, or even the entire book. It's also possible to summarize anything you've heard, like a lecture, or something you've seen and heard, like a movie. In each case, the goal is to present the most important information in a way that will be useful to the reader.
Summary paragraphs should be no longer than five sentences each. Try to keep them short and simple, and include only the main ideas. A summary paragraph may repeat words found in the original work, so make sure the paraphrase is accurate and concise.
The tone of a summary paragraph should match that of the original work. If the author's language is informal, so should you. If the writer uses complex vocabulary or academic terms, avoid using these in your summary too. Readers want to understand the core message being conveyed in a simple way. Use clear and simple language when writing your summary.
In addition to summarizing the whole text, it's also possible to summarize just a part of it. This is called an excerpt. The purpose of an excerpt is to capture the attention of readers who are not interested in reading the whole text. As with the summary, use the main idea on the first page of the excerpt. Keep any additional material that isn't essential to this idea in a separate section called an appendix.
A summary leaves out specifics and excludes the reader's opinion of the source. However, if one is writing a review or assessment of the material, then this would not be appropriate.
Summary examples: The movie was very funny. The novel was excellent. The history lesson was awesome. These are all summary statements because they only present the key points of the original work without getting into detail about what the viewer/reader experienced while watching/reading, respectively.
Summary sentences: A sentence that expresses or summarizes another sentence or part of the text is called a summary sentence. Summary sentences are often used to give a brief overview of a topic or section of text. They are usually short and concise.
Summary paragraphs: A paragraph that summarizes or summarises other parts of the essay is called a summary paragraph. Summary paragraphs should include only essential information from the surrounding paragraphs; otherwise, they become useless. A good summary paragraph should attract readers' attention right away and make them want to read further.
Summary pages: A page that summarizes some aspect of a book or website is called a summary page. Summary pages are useful for providing basic information about a topic without getting into detail about it.