It has been reposted with permission from the original rights holders. Ellen Frankel Paul is a Bowling Green State University professor and member of the Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation. She has written extensively on social and political issues. Fact or Myth? Laissez Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain.
Ellen Frankel Paul's father was Isaac M. Paul, a Jewish immigrant from Russia who became one of the first pharmacists in Buffalo, New York. Her mother was Anna (Wass) Frankel, a Christian American who taught school after marrying Isaac. The family was wealthy enough to live in a large home on Grand Avenue in Bowling Green, which had gas lamps in its yard and a garden surrounded by a stone wall.
Ellen attended public schools in Bowling Green and then went to Wellesley College, where she graduated with honors in 1933. After graduating, she worked as an editorial assistant for the New York Times newspaper for a year before going to graduate school at Columbia University. There she received her master's degree in 1935 and her doctorate four years later. After graduating from Columbia, Ellen Paul took a job as a research analyst with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In 1940, she left government work to raise a son and start a family of her own. In 1945, Ellen Paul returned to BLS as a labor economist. Two years later, she moved to Cleveland as director of research for the National Association of Manufacturers.
Alice Paul, a vocal leader of the twentieth-century women's suffrage movement, pushed for and helped win the adoption of the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which granted women the right to vote. In 1923, Paul drafted the Equal Rights Amendment, which has yet to be enacted. She also played an important role in creating the National Woman's Party and organizing large demonstrations to attract public attention to the cause of women's rights.
In 1872, when she was 14 years old, Alice Paul became one of the first female students at Oberlin College when she entered the class room despite being only a spectator student. Two years later, she graduated with honors from Oberlin with a degree in philosophy. After graduating, she worked as a school teacher for two years before becoming an organizer for the Women's Crusade for the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which banned alcohol consumption. The amendment was adopted in 1919 and repealed in 1933 after which time there was no federal law prohibiting drinking alcohol.
In 1921, Alice Paul formed a national organization called the American Women's Suffrage Association (AWSA) to push for women's right to vote. That same year, she led a successful campaign to get an amendment to the Ohio Constitution that would give women the right to vote approved by voters. In 1922, AWSA changed its name to the National Woman's Party (NWP).
In September 1920, Alice Paul raises a glass in front of the suffrage banner. Alice Paul was a major activist in the women's rights movement of the twentieth century. She was a fiery suffragist and feminist who diligently fought for women's suffrage and equal rights in the United States. The photo taken at this event is now known as "The Mother of Equal Rights".
Alice Paul was born on April 13, 1872 in Newton, Massachusetts. She was the third child of John and Anna Paul. Her father was a devout Christian who worked as a tailor by trade. Her mother was a strong-willed woman who encouraged her children to get an education. When Alice was only nine years old, her family moved to Washington, D.C., so that her father could take a job with the Internal Revenue Service. Here she met other American citizens who were affected by the government's inability to collect taxes. This experience motivated Alice to become an advocate for equal rights for all people.
At age 20, Alice married Henry Lee Banks. He had no interest in politics, but he did want a family. After having two children, they divorced. In 1896, Alice began working for the National Woman's Party, which was formed to promote the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The amendment would give women the right to vote.