The parenthetical citations connect readers to the complete bibliographic citations given at the conclusion of the article in the Works Cited section. The author's last name and the particular page number for the information quoted are usually included in the parenthetical citations. For example, an author named Smith who quotes information on page 3 of the book could be cited as follows: Smith (1996, p. 3).
A parenthetical citation is one that appears in the body of a work and refers to the original source. It allows readers to see where the cited material is derived from. The work referenced page is always at the conclusion of a work and contains the total of all the citations used in the work. This page can be helpful for researchers to determine what sources were used by authors when writing their articles.
An example of a parenthetical citation would be (Durkheim, 1995). This means that the study cited is by Durkheim with the year 1995 after it. Parentheses are used because this is an indirect reference to the study; instead, this citation is known as a serial citation. A serial citation lists one or more studies that build upon each other by incorporating ideas from all together. These can be useful tools for researchers to find different perspectives on an issue related to their own project.
The purpose of using parenthetical citations is so that readers do not have to go to great lengths to locate these sources. As you can imagine, this is especially important when dealing with long-past research projects. By providing access to these sources, publishers hope that researchers will use them again in future works.
Using parenthetical citations does come with some limitations. For example, only one study can appear in a single reference list entry.
Parenthetical citations are remarks in parenthesis that inform the reader about the original sources utilized in the body of your research report. The reader benefits from these notes since they do not have to stop reading to find out what the source material is. They can simply continue with the report.
These notes are important because they provide additional information about your sources that cannot be inferred from just reading their names. For example, if a book is cited as "The Book of Life (Higgins)", then the reader does not know whether "Higgins" refers to a publisher or author. If you include a note here explaining who Higgins is, then the reader knows not to bother looking him up.
Also, notes allow you to distinguish your own findings from those of your sources. If one of your sources claims that "x = y", but you were able to come up with evidence suggesting that actually "z = y", you should still refer to this as separate study and not ignore it. Including a note saying so will not only alert the reader that something might be wrong with the citation, but also that you did in fact come up with new information which may be relevant for the topic at hand.
At the end of your research report, you should include all the notes you made during your investigation. These notes should not only help readers understand how you came to certain conclusions, but also what questions remain unanswered.