In-text citations feature the author's last name followed by a page number in parentheses. "This is a direct quotation" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not mentioned, use the title's initial word or words. Use the same formatting as in the Works Cited list, including quotation marks. "John Smith wrote this book" (Smith 9).
In-text Citation: MLA's in-text citation style employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived, as in: (Smith 163). If the source does not utilize page numbers, omit the number from the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
In-text citations normally include the first element from the Works Cited item (usually the first author's last name, but an abbreviated title is occasionally used) and a location (usually the page number)...
Abbreviations such as in ibid. , for "in the same book" and in idem, for "in the same article or essay," are common. In some cases, the abbreviation is used for the entire reference; for example, A. Smith et al. (2005), not A. Smith et al. 2005. In other cases, only part of the abbreviation is used; for example, Brinkerhoff et al. (2012), not Brinkerhoff et al. 2012.
Unpublished works are cited with the full name of the author followed by \citeauthor, e.g., Smith \citeauthor and Johnson \citeauthor. If the work was published in collaboration, then this would be followed by additional \citeauthors...
Published works are usually cited after the full bibliographic information has been entered into Zotero. However, if you are using the built-in bibliography style for your articles, then references appear at the end of your document with no indication of where they came from.
Citations in the Text
The MLA in-text citation style, for example, employs the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived, as in: (Smith 163).
Internal citations are references within the text to other parts of the same work. They can be used to identify a specific section of the work being quoted or to refer back to an explanation offered earlier in the text. In reference lists, external resources such as books, articles, or websites are listed under their own headings with full citations included. Internal citations are usually cited in the text using the author-date system, with the date of publication used instead of the page number.
For example, if you were referencing the section "A History of Britain", you would cite it as follows: Smith (2003), Chapter 1. This refers to the book by Smith published in 2003, not to any particular page within that work.
Citations are often confused with footnotes. Footnotes are notes written at the bottom of pages or across the margin. They are used to provide additional information about the source. For example, a footnote may indicate who wrote a book mentioned in the text, or where and when it was published. Footnotes do not replace sources; they add more information about them.
When quoting straight from a source, use quotation marks around the cited area. At the conclusion of the quote, provide an in-text reference with the author's name and page number, such as this: "This is a direct quotation" (Smith 8). "This is a direct quotation" ("Trouble" 22).
In-text citation in MLA style is done using the author-page technique. This implies that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is derived must be included in the text, and a complete citation must be included on your Works Cited page.
In other words, you should include the author's last name and page number(s) in your text when referencing that material. Here are some examples: "As Smith says on page 3, quotations are most effective when they are used within the body of the text." Or, "As Smith notes on page 4, quotations are most effective when they are used within the body of the text." Or, "As Smith writes on page 5, quotations are most effective when they are used within the body of the text." Or, simply, "As Smith says, quotations are most effective when they are used within the body of the text."
Here is an example of a book with multiple authors and pages numbers: "Smith mentions Jones on page 123 and Adams on page 145." If there is only one author, write out his or her full name and omit the word "a": "Smith mentions Jones on page 23 and Adams on page 57."
Citations in academic essays follow different rules because they are not considered books.
The in-text citation should contain only the information necessary for the reader to locate the complete citation in your reference list (which is usually titled "Works Cited"). If there is no author, the bibliography should be organized alphabetically by the first word in the entry. These entries can be incorporated into the text of your article.
In addition, notes may be added to the end of the document explaining additional information about the sources included in the reference list.
The aim of in-text citations is to avoid disrupting the flow of the text; therefore, they should not take up more than a few sentences at most. In longer passages, these sentences may be separated by spaces or paragraphs as long as the overall effect is not lost.
In contrast, a bibliography is a list of books or other publications that were used as source materials. These lists are often included at the end of articles when they are long enough to be considered their own separate piece of writing. A typical example would be an article on political science theories regarding government intervention in the economy, which would include a section on each source book used, with detailed explanations of the concepts and ideas they presented.
Bibliographies can also be found at the beginning of articles when they are long enough to require their own section.