Srinivas Das of Delhi, commonly known as Pariksha-Guru, wrote the first contemporary Hindi book (1882). This novel's focus was the mindless imitation of Western civilization, and it advocated for the preservation of traditional culture. Another work by Devaki Nandan Khatri, Chandrakanta, helped popularize Hindi. It was an immediate success and is still regarded as one of the best novels in Indian literature.
M.K. Gandhi wrote two books because he wanted to express his opinions on various issues facing India at that time. The first book he wrote was called "The Unity of Hinduism". In this book, he argues that all major religions have some things in common which show that they are not competing but instead complement each other. He also says that it is important for Indians to understand their own religion so that they can know how others feel about it.
These books tell us that Gandhi was a man who wanted to improve India's living standards by using different strategies such as nonviolence and self-sufficiency. He believed that by understanding our own country we can better help it become a successful nation.
It has been called the first Indian comic book.
Chandrakanta was the first serialized story in an Indian newspaper. It began publication on 15 February 1959 in Bharat Rakshan, a daily published from Calcutta (now Kolkata). The original plot involved the adventures of a girl named Chandrakanta who could see ghosts. A major character in the series was a ghost named Mohini who helps Chandrakanta fight evil spirits.
The popularity of Chandrakanta led to another similar series being published: Harihar Purana in 1960-61. This series also started publication in Bharat Rakshan but then moved to Delhi's famous weekly magazine Haryana Patrika. The stories were written by Devaki Nandan Khatri himself and drawn by his wife Madhu Kaul. The main characters in Harihar Purana included a police officer named Hari and his friend Panna (both names mean "forest" in Hindi).
Another famous series is Dastak which started publication in 1975.
Devaki Nandan Khatri's Chandrakanta is regarded as the earliest work of prose in Hindi. It was written during the 17th century and consists of stories that highlight social evils including female infanticide, child marriage and domestic violence. The novels of Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay are another important influence on modern Hindi literature.
Chandrakanta is the name of both the novel and its main character who tells various tales to explain current events. Each story is set in a different locality of northern India during the time of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (1592-1666).
The protagonist of Chandrakanta is a girl named Chandra who lives with her uncle and aunt in Kashmir. One day, she meets with an accident and falls into a fire where she is rescued by a man who turns out to be a rajah or king. Impressed by Chandra's beauty, he asks for her hand in marriage but she refuses because he is already married to his kingdom. When he insists, she runs away from him but not before leaving behind some advice for her future husband: 'Be kind to women, they will never fail to return your love.
Early Indian authors employed English, unspoiled by Indian vocabulary, to describe a distinctively Indian experience. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838–1894) authored and published "Rammohan's Wife" in 1864; it is the first Indian book written in English. It was followed by other novels such as Vivekananda and Ramakrishna. These works portrayed India as an exotic land full of promise where anything can happen if one is only willing to try.
Chattopadhyay used the term "Indian Writing" in an article he wrote for The Pioneer in 1873. He argued that Indian writing needed its own language, Sanskrit, to be effective. Therefore, he proposed that Bengali be made the official language of law, commerce, and education in Bengal. This idea was adopted by the government of British-ruled India in 1872.
Today, the term "Indian writing" is used to describe writings in English by Indians.
Maithili Sharan Gupt (1886–1964) was the author of Saket, Yashodhara, and other works. Jaishankar Prasad (1889–1937) was a poet, writer, and dramatist who was a key figure in the literary Chhayavaadi movement. His most famous works are Kamayani, Dhruvswamini, Skandagupta, and others. Sumitranandan Pant (1900–1977) was a well-known Hindi poet who primarily wrote about nature. His subjects include birds, animals, trees, mountains, and rivers. He has been called "India's first ecological poet".
Sarojini Naidu (1879–1966) was an Indian poet who played an important role in the development of modern Indian poetry. Her poems focus on social issues such as female oppression, poverty, and war. They have been described as "politically outspoken" and "prophetic".
Heera (1880–1960) was an Indian poet who wrote in both Hindi and Marathi languages. His work reflects his interest in music, love, and nature.
Sukanta Ashrita (1881–1969) was an Indian poet who wrote in both Kannada and Telugu languages. His work focuses on social issues such as poverty, war, and religion.
Kavi Karankaiah (1882–1950) was an Indian poet who wrote in Kannada. His work focuses on social issues such as war and politics.