His first Hindi tale, "Saut," was published in the journal "Saraswati" in December 1915, and his first Hindi short story collection, "Sapta Saroj," followed two years later, in June 1917. These works were widely acclaimed by their contemporaries.
Premchand was born on 4 April 1880 in a small village near present-day Rajasthan state. His father was a government clerk who died when Premchand was only eight years old. He was educated at home by private tutors before being admitted to the Elphinstone College, Bombay (now Mumbai). Here he excelled as a student and writer, and obtained honorary degrees from the college in 1907 and 1911. In 1912, he became the principal of the college but gave up this post three years later to write full time.
His novels and stories reflect his deep interest in social issues such as poverty, caste discrimination, and female oppression. They have been translated into many languages, including English, French, German, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Persian, and Telugu.
He died in Mumbai on 7 August 1920, at the young age of 36. Although he had become very successful late in life, due to some controversies surrounding his death it has also been reported that he may have committed suicide.
Srinivas Das of Delhi, also known as Pariksha-Guru, wrote the first contemporary Hindi book (1882). This novel's focus was the mindless imitation of Western civilization, and it advocated for the preservation of traditional culture. Another work by Devaki Nandan Khatri, Chandrakanta, helped popularize Hindi. It was an immediate success and has never been out of print since its publication in 1883.
Das was born into a family of teachers and he followed in their footsteps. He was married with two children when he started writing novels. One of his works, Srinivasa Tatacharya, was very successful and was made into a film in 1950. Another of his books, Tarangini, is considered one of the greatest poems in the Hindi language.
After independence from Britain in 1947, the need for a national language emerged. So, in 1950, the government of India adopted Hindi as its official language instead of English. Today, more than 70 percent of the population of India speaks Hindi as their first language.
Although Hindi is the official language of India, many people also speak Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, Urdu, or Tamil. These are all languages in the Indo-European family, which includes English, French, German, and other European languages.
She was well-known for her poetry writing from her school days. When she was nine years old, her first poem, "Maryada," was published. She based her poetry on the Neem tree. Subhadra and Mahadevi Varma, the famous poet of literature, were childhood companions. They grew up together in a middle-class family in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Their father had foreign connections and worked for an American company as an accountant.
Subhadraji was married at the age of thirteen to Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the eldest son of one of the most respected families of Bengal. He was more than twenty years older than her. The couple had three children: two sons and a daughter. After ten years of marriage, Subhadraji left her husband and children and went to live with her parents. Her husband did not grant her a divorce because he wanted to punish her. However, once he realized that she wasn't coming back, he began to seek justice by taking legal steps. In 1872, he sent his lawyer to Calcutta to get a court order granting him a divorce. But when the lawyer reached there, he found out that Subhadraji had died earlier that year. Her death was reported in all the newspapers of India. It was also mentioned in some religious books written about her life. These books said that she renounced worldliness and chose to worship Neem trees until she achieved moksha (liberation).
According to Dalit historians, the word "dalit literature" dates back to the inaugural Dalit Literary Conference in 1958.. Baburao Bagul's 1963 collection of short stories, Jevha Mi Jaat Chorli Hoti (When I Concealed My Caste), was dubbed the "Dalit Epic." It included stories by other writers who have been called the "first generation of Dalit authors."
The second wave of Dalit writing emerged in the 1970s and 1980s with works by B.R. Ambedkar that focused on his views on Buddhism and Hinduism. These writings formed the basis for what is now referred to as the "third generation of Dalit authors." Notable examples include B.L. Santhara Udyog (Industrial Development) by S.S. Samartha; Karmayogi: A Biography of a Buddhist Saint by D.K. Pandey; and Buddha Baraha: The Story of a Buddhist Saint by P.M. Bhagwati.
The fourth generation of Dalit writers began to appear in the 1990s and 2000s. They include Gautam Navlakha; Partha Banerjee; and Anjali Mathur. Their works focus mainly on issues such as caste discrimination, poverty, and unemployment.
Over 300 short stories, 14 novels, essays, letters, plays, and translations were written by him. 4. Among his best-known works are his children's novels Jangal ki Kahaniyan and Ram Charcha. Premchand's first literary effort, written in Gorakhpur, was never published and is now gone. It consisted of four poems that he had written when he was studying in England.
He returned to India in 1884 and started writing for newspapers. His first major work was a trilogy on the lives of Indian women called Devdas (1890-1903). The novel created controversy at the time because it was considered anti-social by some critics.
In 1905, Premchand wrote his most famous work, perhaps even his only popular work, called Muhakamat. This word means "an account of the deeds of a certain person". In this case, it is an account of the life of a young boy named Muhakam who grows up in Delhi during the time of the British Empire. This novel has been translated into many languages including English.
Besides writing articles and books, Premchand also worked as a school teacher in several cities including Rajkot, Ahmedabad, and Dharamsala before becoming a full-time writer in 1890. He died in 1920 at the age of 57.
Some consider him one of the greatest writers in Hindi literature.