According to Alinea, the Golden Age of Philippine Literature in Spanish lasted from 1903 until 1942. In reaction to the transition in the prevailing political authority, literary works were "conciliatory in tone" (Alinea 511). Authors such as José Rizal and Martíño Rosario wrote about social issues in the context of the new government. However, they also included "eroticism and adventure stories that had previously been popular among the upper classes" (Alinea 512), which indicates a change in focus for these writers.
After Rizal's execution in 1896, he became an icon for the revolution against Spain. His novel Noli me tangere was influential in promoting nationalism among the people. It tells the story of a young man who loves two women - one Italian and the other Japanese - and this causes problems for him because he is living in the Philippines at the time. Noli me tangere has been called the first modern novel in the country and it made its author famous throughout the world.
However, despite the fact that Rizal was admired by the people, he did not agree with some of their ideas. For example, he believed that violence should be used against Spain but not the people. After reading many novels written by Spanish authors, he felt that they were not being true to life and decided to write about characters that were similar to himself.
History. Cebuano literature, like other Philippine literature, began with tales and stories of the early peoples of the Philippines and the colonial period, all the way down to Mexican (Viceroyalty of New Spain) and Spanish influences. The religious subject was prevalent during the Spanish colonial period. After independence from Spain in 1815, literary works began to appear, mostly by Catholic priests who wanted to show how much faith was needed to get to heaven after dying. These books included biographies of saints, collections of sermons, and narratives about Christ's life.
During the American period (1898-1946), Cebuano poetry and writing developed rapidly. Many poets used Cebuano as their main language, while others wrote in Filipino and some even in English. The most famous poet of this era is Rosendo H. Cordova, who published several volumes of his work. In addition, many writers and journalists published articles on political issues such as democracy, nationalism, and socialism.
After World War II, Cebuano literature started to decline because many people switched to reading magazines and newspapers which were being printed in English. However, some authors chose to write more personal works, using experiences from their lives as sources of inspiration. Today, there are still new publications appearing regularly.
Philippine literature is literature related with the Philippines from prehistory to the present, including colonial legacies. Pre-Hispanic Philippine literature consisted of epics passed down from generation to generation, initially by oral tradition. The Spanish introduced paper and printing techniques which accelerated the process of literacy. Modern Philippine literature includes novels, essays, poetry, and drama produced in the Filipino language.
Because of the diversity of its cultures, languages, and traditions, the Philippines has been described as "a country without a history," or as one historian put it, "there is no such thing as Philippine history." Yet the Philippines has produced many notable writers over the years who have made significant contributions to world literature.
Jose Rizal was a national hero who fought for an independent Philippines but was executed by the Spaniards for his role in the Revolution. He is considered the father of modern Philippine literature because of his influential novel Noli me tangere (Touch Me Not).
Rizal's friend Bernardo Carpio continued the fight against Spain and was elected president of the new republic but was exiled after being accused of treason by the Spaniards. He died in exile in Belgium at the age of 44.
Carpio was not only a friend of Rizal but also an author whose work had a great influence on him.
The pre-colonial period, the Spanish colonial era, the American colonial era, and the modern period are the literary periods in Philippine literature. Literature in the Philippines evolved as the country's history changed. Today's writers include those who were born after independence from Spain (1946), when the United States took over the Philippines during World War II, or even later.
Pre-Colonial Period: The pre-colonial period in Philippine history began around 1000 AD with the arrival of various ethnic groups in the islands. They included the Malays, Chinese, Indians, Arabs, and Europeans. Malay influence on the culture of the Philippines is seen in various forms of art such as ceramics, weaving, metalworking, and sculpting. The Chinese introduced gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and paper money to the Philippines. Indian traders established trade routes across the archipelago with as far away as Indonesia. Arabs from what is now Syria brought the knowledge of agriculture and animal husbandry to the Philippines. Europe's involvement in the Philippines begins in 1521 with the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon Island in Cagayan Valley. He was the first European to sail through the Strait of Manila, which today is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. In 1565, Spanish explorer Diego de Almagro reached the northern part of what is now the Philippines.
The use of native languages as the primary medium of literary expression rather than foreign languages characterizes the Filipino literary present period. The modern era began in the 1960s, but it really took off once the martial-law regime ended in 1986. Since then, the country has had several changes in leadership, and its democracy has been repeatedly tested by protests and elections.
Nowadays, the Philippines is a middle-income country with an economy that depends heavily on exports of mining products, oil, and food. It also receives significant aid from abroad, especially from Japan and the United States.
In literature, poetry is most often associated with classicism, while novels are typical of realism. However, many novelists write both types of work, and many poets write essays as well as poems.
Currently, the Philippine literature scene is very active and includes writers in various genres including historical fiction, literary criticism, memoirs, science fiction, fantasy, horror, young adult literature, and playwriting.
A notable figure of the early modern period is José Rizal, who is considered the father of the nation of the Philippines. Rizal was born in the city of Laguna in the province of Laguna in 1861. He went to school in Spain for only a year before returning to the Philippines.