Shapiro's poetry approach in the provided line is imagery. Imagery is a literary device used to convey an idea or concept by means of pictures, rather than words. Imagery can be used to describe something that is seen with one's own eyes (eyewitness imagery), something heard (auditory imagery), something felt (physical imagery), or something thought about (mental imagery). Fiction writers often use imagery to add atmosphere to their stories.
In this case, the first thing that comes to mind when reading this line is sight. The second thing that comes to mind is sound. Then it struck me like a thunderbolt: smell! Smell is the third thing that came to my mind when reading this line. This shows that imagery can be used to describe something that is seen, heard, felt, and thought about.
Furthermore, imagery can also be abstract. Abstract imagery can be used to describe anything, not just physical objects or feelings.
This concept of art as an autonomous source of meaning was what distinguished Stevens as a real modernist, even while his poetry adhered to English poetic conventions such as the iambic-pentameter line, which other poets were abandoning. Art for art's sake was a philosophy that became popular in the late 19th century, but it was first proposed by Schiller in 1795. He called art a "free activity of the spirit" and contrasted it with science, which he saw as constrained by facts and theories.
Wallace Stevens was one of the most important poets of the early twentieth century. His work pre-dating that of T. S. Eliot by several years has earned him a place among the major poets of the American Renaissance. Like Eliot, he was interested in ancient myths and legends and their influence on modern life. But where Eliot used mythology for religious purposes, Stevens used it as a metaphor for reality itself: "a myth for our time." He also coined the term "overage" to describe his own work, which he felt was beyond its time.
In addition to being a poet, Wallace Stevens was also a professor of English literature at Harvard University from 1919 to 1936. During this time, he developed a system of classification called "the essential nature of things," which divided all objects into five categories: spirit, form, matter, health, and beauty.
Eliot's imagery works through employing literal imagery, word choice, depictions of human impact, grammar, and rhythm. He employs phrases that conjure up vivid mental images. The phrases "[W]ithered leaves" (7), for example, provide a crisp, sharp image, as do "... filthy bits" (6). His use of language is such that it "strikes home". His poems are descriptive and emotional rather than argumentative or dogmatic.
Eliot also uses imagery to convey human impact: "The old order changeth, yielding place to new / For this is the perpetual process of the world" (5-6). This line uses natural imagery to describe the changing of the seasons and the rise and fall of civilizations. It makes us think about how events in history have shaped our world today and will continue to do so into the future.
Eliot also uses visual imagery to express ideas. We can see this when we read lines like "A jackal cries at night;/ A low-lying branch cracks" (4-5). These words alone give us an idea of what kind of imagery he is using - something that sounds like a cry, on top of something that looks like a branch.
Eliot also uses imagery to create feelings in his readers. For example, he describes nature as "grimly beautiful" (1), which means that it makes us feel gloomy and sad at first glance.