John Ciardi's translation is the finest I've found from beginning to conclusion. It's a poetic translation that's as close to the original as you can get while translating Italian terza rima into English. There are no archaisms, it is quite clear, and it is every bit as strong as the original. In fact, one could even say that it enhances the poem by bringing out its deeper meaning.
The first part of the trilogy, called "Purgatorio", was written by Dante Alighieri in 1308-9 when he was between the ages of 30 and 40. The second part, called "Paradiso", was written some 15 years later when he was again between the ages of 30 and 40. So if you read both parts in chronological order, you will see that they show many similarities which must have been influenced by or even dictated by reality itself. For example, there are passages in which Dante mentions people he knows, such as Arnaut Daniel or Guido del Monte. These references may have actually inspired him to write about them!
Another interesting fact is that part two is completely different from part one not only in language but also in subject matter. So if you want to read the entire poem in one go, this is the way to do it. However, if you only have time for one part, might as well pick part one since it has scenes that part two lacks!
This poem is an Italian sonnet, with fourteen lines divided into an octave and a sestet, separated by a shift in the poem's argumentative direction. The title comes from line 3, where it is asked whether God's greatness can be measured.
The poem was written by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), an Italian poet and writer who was born in Paris but raised in Florence. He is best known for writing fifty books of poetry that have come to be called "Decameron," which means "ten frames" in Italian. The stories within them come from real life events but are told by different people each day for ten days, thus giving the impression of new information. They cover a wide range of topics including history, literature, religion, and politics. Boccaccio was also responsible for introducing important elements from European drama (such as prose scenes between acts) into his work.
Sonnets were popular in Europe during the 14th century, when they were used by poets to show their friends how much they admired them. This poem was probably written as a tribute to one of its subjects, whose identity is now lost. But since it includes references to God's greatness and mankind's inability to measure it, it may have been written about someone famous for being a great poet or scholar.
The poem concludes by stating that following death's resting phase, humanity will join the afterlife, a period in which death will cease to exist. Donne closes the poem with a paradox: "and death shall be no more, death thou shalt die." This contradiction suggests that while death may disappear, it also remains within us forever.
Donne uses metaphysical language to describe death. He says that death is a "resting" that allows for "sleep". Then he adds that when we die, we will "join" the afterlife where there is "no more death, nor sorrow, but all shall be well". Donne is saying that death is not an end but rather a change where everything will be fine once we reach our next stage.
He also uses religious words like "sin", "grace", and "heaven". Donne was a devout Catholic who probably used these words frequently in his daily prayers. In fact, some people say that Donne wrote most of the poems while praying for the salvation of his soul after being convicted of heresy (not believing in Jesus Christ as the only way to heaven).
This means that when we die, our souls will be separated from our bodies and sent to hell where they will suffer eternal punishment for sin.
The poem is based on Christian philosophy and religion. Dante's afterlife vision reflects the mediaeval worldview, which was significantly influenced by the Church. It was composed in the Tuscan language and hence had a significant role in establishing the Tuscan language as the standard Italian language.
Divine Comedy describes the journey of poet Dante Alighieri through the underworld after being condemned to hell for supporting the claim that the Holy Roman Emperor was not truly divine until confirmed by God during his exile on earth. The poem consists of three parts: Inferno (Hell), Paradiso (Heaven), and Purgatorio (Purgatory). It was written between 1308 and 1321.
Divine Comedy has been interpreted by many thinkers and artists over the centuries and it continues to be read today. It has been cited by many philosophers, scientists, and writers including Michel de Montaigne, John Milton, Samuel Johnson, Alexander Pope, Thomas Jefferson, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Divine Comedy has been translated into almost all major languages worldwide. It is considered one of the greatest works of medieval literature.
In reality, the first English translation of Dante's Divine Comedy was produced in 1802, over 500 years after Dante authored his Italian original...
This is a free-verse poem with no rhyme or rhyme scheme. End Rhyme: End rhyme is used to provide melody to the stanza. For instance, "sane" and "chain." This type of end rhyme can only be used with certain words such as names, places, things that don't change within the context of the poem.
Alliteration: Alliterative poetry uses similar sounds to create a pattern across lines that resembles music. For example, "cradle song" uses the alliterative pattern because the words cradle and song are similar in sound.
Consistency: A feature of many old poems is their use of meter—a regular measure based on length rather than accentuation of syllables. Modern poets often avoid using meter because it is seen as limiting, but ancient masters such as Horace and Milton used it to great effect.
Diction: The art of word choice. In general, older texts tend to have simpler diction, while later works tend to be more refined and stylized.
Epic: An epic is a long narrative poem dealing with heroic subjects. These poems were popular throughout history because people enjoyed reading about amazing events that sometimes had unexpected consequences.
One of the most difficult issues in literary translation is striking a balance between keeping authentic to the original work and generating an altogether separate piece that elicits the same feelings as the original piece. Any literary translator will tell you that even a single word may be a source of frustration. After all, a good translation should enable readers from different languages to understand one another's thoughts.
In addition to being aware of common words that have multiple translations (such as "love" in Portuguese or Spanish), translators must also be familiar with cultural differences between countries. For example, in English, it is common practice to use "they" instead of "one". This choice can either be made by the translator or the reader; if it is made by the translator, they use gender-neutral pronouns such as "he or she" or "ze/zir". If the reader makes this choice, then "they" becomes necessary. In French, however, it is usual practice to use "ils" for both males and females, so another solution would be needed for translating this into French. The simplest option would be to use "they", but since it is not common practice in French, the translator might want to consider using "les" instead.
Even when these choices have been made correctly, certain words or expressions may still cause problems. For example, in English, it is common practice to use "their" instead of "there".