These were compiled into seven books. Without Steele's involvement, the publication was restarted in 1714, publishing thrice weekly for six months, and these pieces were gathered to produce the ninth volume. Addison's cousin Eustace Budgell and poet John Hughes also contributed to the book. The last three volumes were printed by Abraham Edwards.
Steele wrote over 100 articles for the Spectator, most of which were satirical essays on current events or political figures. He also occasionally covered more serious topics such as slavery or taxation. His work often made him unpopular with his contemporaries including Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and David Hume. However, historians have since praised his contributions to English journalism.
After the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the main topic discussed in the Spectator was the succession. It was during this time that George I became king and he appointed Steele his secretary of state. This role required Steele to travel around Europe meeting with other government officials and it greatly reduced his time at his home in London. Although George I wanted someone less prominent than himself to be his successor, he ended up having to accept the Duke of Cumberland's wish to become king.
He began composing articles on the spur of the moment. His boyhood buddy Richard Steele founded the Tatler in April 1709. Steele published 188 writings for the Tatler, while Addison supplied 42. Steele said of Addison's assistance, "after I had once called him in, I could not exist without depending on him."
Addison continued to write for Steele until his death in May 1724. By then, the Tatler was publishing eight articles a week on average.
About the only thing we know for sure about Addison's work is that he used as his model the papers written by Joseph Hall, an English poet and diplomat who died in 1656. These papers were first published in 1631 when they were titled The Poetical Miscellany. They were later reprinted under the title Of Courtism and Country Life.
In fact, all of Steele's authors contributed to different topics within the magazine. This shows how much freedom there was with regards to writing for The Tatler.
Addison started out writing about court life but soon moved on to discuss politics and social issues too. He also wrote some poems and songs.
It's estimated that Addison wrote around 1,000 words every day! That's more than six articles or reviews per week!
Within a few years, he became one of the most popular writers for The Tatler.
The Spectator was an English daily newspaper published by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele that ran from 1711 to 1712. Each "paper" or "number" was around 2,500 words long, and the initial run began on March 1, 1711, with 555 numbers. They were originally distributed for free outside London city limits, but this was later changed so that only three copies per person were permitted. The first four books initially appeared under the name A Modest Enquiry; then from book five onward they were known as The Spectator, which was the title taken by all subsequent editions.
Addison and Steele used their paper to publish opinions on current events as well as material of a more general nature. It became very popular and was praised for its clear writing and elegant style. The Spectator has been called England's first magazine. Its readers included leading politicians and intellectuals of its time.
The paper ceased publication after seven numbers had been issued because of financial difficulties. However, an extension to the contract was negotiated until August 31, 1712, when it was finally terminated.
In total, 73 numbers were published over this period.
Books 5-7 are available in print and online. The first four books are available in print only.
There are several theories about how many essays were written by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele.
It is considered the first modern weekly magazine.
Addison and Steele had been friends since they met while students at Cambridge University. In 1698 they had established a London newspaper called The Tatler, which lasted for only six issues before it was shut down by the government due to its liberal views. After this failure, they decided not to publish another newspaper for several years. But in 1710 they realized they needed to start up again if they wanted to have any influence over events while still living in London. Thus was born The Spectator, a monthly magazine that would include essays on current affairs plus poetry and jokes.
Its aim was to provide informed discussion on public issues but also offer some amusement as well. So many people read The Spectator that it became one of the most popular magazines of its time. It also influenced other magazines such as Black's Magazine and Fraser's Magazine (both founded in 1751) that took a similar format. Today The Spectator is remembered for being the first true magazine that allowed for serious discussion about politics and current events to be mixed with humor and entertainment.
The writings for the Spectator were written with strong moral motives by Addison and Steele. They sought for social reformation, an improvement in the manners and behavior of their generation, and the abolition of widespread illiteracy. Addison also wanted to see more attention paid to poetry and literature, ideas that would later be embraced by George III.
Addison believed that it was his mission to "instruct, delight, and improve." He aspired to this task for both an individual and a collective audience. As an individual, he wanted to provide guidance for his friends and family, especially those who might be in need of help with their problems. As a member of the establishment, he wanted to amuse his fellow citizens and make them think better of themselves and their world. He succeeded on both counts.
Besides being a journalist, author, and actor, John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester was also a poet and playwright. His work reflects the influence of Donne and Herbert. He was known for his extravagant lifestyle and volatile temper. In 1671, at the age of twenty-one, he was imprisoned for debt; two years later, he was freed after paying all his creditors. During this time, he wrote many poems, some of which have survived.
Rochester is considered one of the founders of the English comic tradition.
The Tatler was a two-year-long British literary and social periodical founded by Richard Steele in 1709. The Tatler was liquidated by Addison and Steele in order to start again with the identical Spectator, and the collected issues of Tatler are normally published in the same book as the collected Spectator. This book is called "The Tatler" and it has been described as "Britain's first magazine".
The name "Tatler" comes from the word "tattle", which means gossip. In fact, the original plan was for Steele to write only one article per month for the new publication but when there was enough interest he decided to continue writing about current affairs and people's lives instead. Thus, the Tatler served as a platform for news and gossip about London society at the time.
The Spectator was written by Addison and intended for distribution to a wider audience than just those who could afford a subscription to the Tatler. It was therefore printed on cheaper paper and had fewer illustrations than its rival magazine. However, even though it was sold for a lower price, many more copies of The Spectator were sold due to its broader appeal. Indeed, so popular was The Spectator that within a few years there were enough copies in circulation for it to be reprinted twice.