Breton, Andre Andre Breton, the Father of Surrealism, dies at the age of 70; poet and critic who influenced art and letters in the 1900s; co-founder of the World Anti-Stalin Artists Group with Trotsky.
He was born on March 16, 1884, in Nice, France; his parents were middle-class intellectuals who moved to Paris when he was young so that his father could work as an editor for a newspaper company. He had two sisters.
Breton began writing poetry at the age of 14 and soon became involved in left-wing politics. He was imprisoned twice for political reasons and after the second arrest decided not to fight the charge because he believed it would only worsen his situation. When he got out, he started publishing poems and articles about revolutionary subjects in magazines that had more freedom than other publications at the time. This led to him meeting other artists and writers who formed what would become known as "The Circle" or "The Club du Faisan Rouge". The group included Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst, René Magritte, and Louis Aragon.
They spent most of their time discussing philosophy, literature, and politics and came up with ideas for projects such as a magazine called "L'Esprit". In 1907, they decided to go their separate ways but kept in touch regularly by letter.
With the release of the Manifesto of Surrealism by the poet and critic Andre Breton (1896–1966) in 1924, Surrealism became a worldwide intellectual and political movement.
It's striking how conventional journalists writing about Surrealism downplay the politics. For example, in the huge book Revolution and the Mind: The Life of Andre Breton, author Mark Polizzotti briefly mentions the ties between Surrealism and anarchist.
Learn more about Dada, the art movement that spawned Surrealism. Which artists dabbled in surrealism? Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Andre Masson, Rene Magritte, Yves Tanguy, Salvador Dali, Pierre Roy, Paul Delvaux, and Joan Miro were the key Surrealist artists.
Andre Breton was a French poet. He created the Surrealist movement with a group of friends in 1924.
The main idea behind Surrealism is that the mind of the person observing or reading about something strange or unusual will sometimes be able to produce images or thoughts about it that weren't there before. These new images are said to come from within ourselves, so they're called "internal images". The person who produces these internal images is called a "surréaliste".
Breton first used the word "surreal" when he wrote an article titled "Le Surréalisme est-il mortel?" (Surrealism is it fatal?) for the journal Documents sur le Theatre (Documents on Theater). This article caused a large amount of controversy at the time because people thought it was too negative about one of France's most famous artists at the time, Marcel Duchamp. In fact, Breton was simply calling attention to the fact that Duchamp had been involved with the movement and had even produced some works as surrealist artists themselves.
It was affected by a variety of variables that turned it into the phenomena that we know today: Breton offered his views as a former member of Dada and a committed Marxist, while the Surrealists themselves drew inspiration from Sigmund Freud's work, notably his book The Interpretation of...
In 1924, Breton published the Surrealist Manifesto, which defined Surrealism as "pure psychological automatism," profoundly influencing the methods and beginnings of subsequent movements such as Abstract Expressionism. During the First World War, one of Breton's primary ideas was in art as an anti-war protest. He started a magazine called L'Esprit Nouveau that published articles on literature, politics, and art, and he also organized exhibitions to showcase new artists.
As part of his effort to promote artistic freedom, in 1936 Breton co-founded the French Communist Party. The following year, during the Spanish Civil War, he traveled to Spain with other intellectuals to support Franco's rebellion against Francisco Franco. After returning to France, Breton continued to publish books and magazines that helped spread the ideals of Surrealism across Europe and the United States. In 1939, he founded another important movement called Dada, which is considered a revolutionary reaction against traditional rational thinking in art. A few years later, in 1944, Breton developed another idea called "The Revolution of Everyday Life", which called for individuals to become politically active through acts such as boycotting Nazi products and participating in demonstrations.
In 1949, after the end of World War II, Breton created another movement called "Integral Art". This movement called for artists to use all forms of media including poetry, music, film, and photography to express their views on society.
Surrealism officially began with Dadaist writer Andre Breton's Surrealist manifesto in 1924, although the movement originated as early as 1917, influenced by Giorgio de Chirico's paintings, which portrayed street scenes with a dreamlike character. Other artists who had some influence on surrealism include Paul Klee, Leonora Carrington, and René Magritte.
Breton was an influential figure in modern art. The others were not exactly unknown before they joined the movement, but they all became major players within it. Breton was able to gather together these influential thinkers and artists to form a cohesive group that shared his beliefs about the need for a new type of artwork. He also played an important role in defining the direction of surrealism for many years to come.
After World War II, several other artists became interested in surrealism and its methods. Most notable among these was Jackson Pollock, who was inspired by the writings of Breton to create works that were unusually violent yet beautiful at the same time. Although Pollock died before seeing much success, he has become one of the most important artists in history due to his unique style.
Another famous painter who was influenced by surrealism is Salvador Dalí.
Surrealism, founded in 1924 by Andre Breton, seized the art world by storm. Surrealist painters sought to access the unconscious in order to unleash their creativity and imagination. They felt, influenced by psychoanalysis, that the logical mind repressed the force of their expression. By removing themselves from reality, they were able to express the hidden forces within themselves.
Breton argued that true creativity only came about through conscious effort. In order to achieve this, artists needed to free themselves from the constraints of reality so that nothing could get in the way of their ideas. This led them to use techniques such as automatic writing, where they would let their minds go without stopping for hours at a time, in order to produce works of art.
Surrealism has had an enormous impact on modern art, and many famous artists have been influenced by it including Pablo Picasso, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Salvador Dalí, and Robert Delaunay.
Picasso was a major figure in the movement and is regarded as its creator. He developed his own style of painting called "abstraction" which removed objects completely from their usual context in order to explore new ways of seeing the world. This allowed him to express himself freely without being constrained by reality.
Toulouse-Lautrec's work also shows evidence of being influenced by surrealism.