Many of his full plays have been discovered. An Indian researcher uncovered and published the scripts of 13 of Bhasa's works in 1912, which had previously only been known through allusions from old Sanskrit dramatists. The latest discovery was made in 2014 by another Indian scholar who found two more Bhasa plays in an ancient palm leaf manuscript at Cambridge University.
Bhasa was an Indian playwright around 30 years older than Shakuntala. His work is now considered one of the important contributions to early modern theatre.
Bhasa was a professional actor and director whose own plays were not unusual for that time period - they included elements of comedy and tragedy and mixed genres between them. But what makes him special is his ability to express himself through the characters he creates and their conversations. His texts are always interesting to read because they're not just descriptions of scenes but also commentaries on human nature.
He was probably born in Bengal (in present-day Bangladesh) and lived around 150 AD. We don't know much about his life except that he was married with three children.
Bhasa started writing dramas when he was already a famous actor so it can be assumed that he did this as a part of his job. But we cannot be sure because no records have been found describing his activities or those of other writers at the time.
The Egyptians were the first to develop a distinct drama (as far as we know). It first appeared about 4000 BC. The 55 Pyramid writings (3000 BC and earlier), which were inscribed on tomb walls and feature a storyline, characters, and stage directions, are the earliest plays. Although no actual performances are known to have taken place, it is believed that patrons paid priests to read the texts from papyrus during funeral ceremonies.
The Egyptians invented many things that we take for granted today, such as paper, printing, and writing. But they also had many beliefs and practices that would not be accepted by most people today. For example, they believed that some parts of the human body were better than others. The mind was considered the worst part of the body, so it made sense that they would want to protect the brain with a well-crafted monument. In addition, they believed that the soul migrated back and forth between the body and the afterlife during life. So they needed ways to remember people after they died in order to bring them back to life again. Finally, they believed that there was a god behind almost everything that happened in our world, so it made sense that they would want to give him a part in their rituals too.
Drama was widely used by other ancient cultures as well. The Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans all developed different styles of drama.
Thespis... tradition, the actor and playwright Thespis invented the drama when he augmented the chorus of the dithyramb... Innovation of the Greek poet Thespis in the 6th century BC, and theatrical costumes were both innovations that made possible the development of theater into a true art form.
The spesis is a musical performance consisting of a prologue and an epilogue, which are sung by musicians only. It was originally used to announce the arrival of a new god at a festival, but it soon became a feature of other religious celebrations as well. The prologue is usually a song that praises the gods for their generosity, while the epilogue reminds people to be grateful for what they have. The spesis is often accompanied by dancing. When actors started performing in plays that included singing and dancing, they had to have something new to say or do. Thus, the spesis was transformed into the opening and closing number of a theatrical performance.
In ancient Greece, priests called bards sang during sacred rituals to honor the gods. They were usually involved in court ceremonies or participated in military campaigns. After the ritual was over, the bards wrote down what they remembered of the songs and played them for others later. This is how poetry and music became linked together. A few centuries after Thespis invented theater, poets began writing plays too.