Paz, Octavio Octavio Paz, a Mexican writer, poet, and essayist, will receive the Nobel Prize in Literature this year, honoring a Spanish writer with a broad international viewpoint. He is the first Latin American to receive the award.
Born in Mexico City on March 24, 1912, he was raised by his grandparents after his father died when he was only two years old. He studied law and economics at the University of California, Berkeley, but left school before graduating to work as an editor for several newspapers in California. In 1939 he moved to Mexico where he started writing essays and poetry for various magazines. He also worked as a news analyst for Radio Mexico and taught literature and psychology at the National School of Arts and Crafts. From 1951 to 1963 he was secretary-general of what is now known as the Organization of American States (OAS). In 1967 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences of Mexico and in 1975 he was appointed to the International Peace Bureau in Geneva. In 1992 he received the Léopold Senghor Prize from UNESCO and the following year was elected president of PEN America. He died in October 1996 at the age of 83 after suffering from cancer for several months.
So, Paz won the Nobel Prize in Literature this year.
The prize is awarded annually in Stockholm on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death. As of 2020, 117 people had received the Nobel Prize in Literature: Laureates.
|Laureate||José Echegaray (1830 – 1914)|
"The Nobel Prize in Literature is granted to someone who has done remarkable work in an idealistic path that benefits humanity the most," she explained. "Nationality is completely irrelevant."
As for what constitutes "remarkable" work, the Nobel Committee has a bit of leeway here. Previous winners include people such as Albert Camus, Virginia Woolf, Toni Morrison, and Alice Munro. All great writers who have been awarded the prize.
They all had one thing in common: They were all extraordinary human beings who have left their mark on world literature.
Literature is defined as "the art of writing that deals with ideas and emotions through language." So basically, the Nobel Prize for Literature is given to people who use words effectively to express themselves and others. This includes writers, poets, journalists, and bloggers.
Since its creation in 1901 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the prize has been awarded to only 67 people out of more than 20 million candidates. That's about 0.03%.
The number of nominees is limited to 200 since 2005. If more than this many people submit works for consideration, the selection process becomes impossible.
1945 Gabriela Mistral received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1945 "for her lyric poetry, which, inspired by intense emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American community."
The poet was born on March 4th, 1889 in Churubusco, Mexico. Her parents were well-off farmers who owned land all around Latin America. When she was only nine years old, her family moved to Caracas, Venezuela because her father had been appointed director of education in an eastern province. She lived there until she was 18 years old when she went back to Mexico because her mother had died. After graduating from high school, she traveled throughout Europe for several years and then came back to Venezuela where she worked as a teacher.
She met with great success with her poems which were published in magazines and newspapers across Venezuela. In 1937 she went back to France where she stayed for three years because of political problems in Venezuela. When she returned home, President Marcos Pérez Jiménez gave her job as professor at the University of Puerto Rico but she never accepted it because she felt it was not worthy enough to keep her away from writing poems.
In 1945 she received the Nobel Prize after having been nominated by Ecuador, Paraguay and Uruguay.
1980 Perez Esquivel, Adolfo In 1980, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts as secretary-general of Peace and Justice (Paz y Justicia), an ecumenical organization founded in 1974 to coordinate human rights operations throughout Latin America. He was the first person from Mexico to receive the prize.
Over 100,000 people have been killed since 2006, when President Felipe Calderón launched a military campaign against drug gangs. The violence has spread across the country, with zealous followers of one gang or another killing civilians to establish control over neighborhoods or act as proxies for politicians who want to be seen as able to protect businesses or communities from crime.
Mexico has a strong tradition of voting and elections, so it's important that citizens go to the polls on 1 July. If voters reject the candidates proposed by the two main parties, then there will be a need for new leadership which can only come from outside the current system - perhaps through direct democracy via a popular vote on any candidate, regardless of party, or perhaps through a return to the old system of appointing officials.
Toni Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993 for "giving life to an important component of American reality in books distinguished by visionary intensity and lyrical import." She is the first African-American to receive the award.
Morrison was born on January 16, 1931, in Lorain, Ohio. Her mother died when she was only six years old and she was raised by her father, a dentist. He had strong opinions about how women should behave and didn't want them to be teachers or nurses. When Morrison was 11 years old, her family moved to Scotland County, North Carolina where her father took over the dental practice of one of his friends. Here she developed a love for reading that would later influence her writing career.
After graduating from Howard University with a bachelor's degree in English in 1951, Morrison went back home to work as a teacher before moving to New York City where she tried but failed to find work as a writer. In 1955, she married well-to-do insurance executive John W. Morris and had a son named Jack who died when he was just two years old. This tragic event inspired the novel Sula which became her breakthrough work.