Ezhuthachan, a staunch supporter of the Bhakti movement, is regarded as the "Father of Malayalam." His poetry are under the category of kilippattu. After the latter half of the 18th century CE, prose literature, criticism, and Malayalam journalism emerged. This was followed by a revival of classical poetry in the early 19th century CE.
Ezhuthachan was born on 15 August 1750 in Kollam, then part of the Kingdom of Travancore. He was named Neelakandan Achutha Menon after his father. He had two brothers named Manathana Menon and Parameswara Menon. The family belonged to an ancient royal house of Kerala. Ezhuthachan was married at the age of 20 to Kunjukutty Amma, who was several years older than him. They had six children. Three sons lived beyond childhood: Mankodiyettin, Elayarman and Eappen.
He became renowned as the founding father of New Poetry in Tamil and was credited with bringing about a literary revolution in Tamil. Panchali sapatham (1912), Kuyil pattu (1912), and Kannan pattu (1912) are among Bharathiyar's best-known compositions (1917).
Bharathiyar was born on 15 August 1867 into a wealthy family who had settled in northern Tamil Nadu. He showed an interest in writing from an early age and learned to recite poems when he was a child. At the age of thirteen, he composed his first work, Manimekalai, which was followed by another thirty two poems within five years. In 1887, at the age of nineteen, he married Sundari Bai, who was several years older than him. The couple had three children: Kalaimani, Kannagi, and Kaalini.
Bharathiyar started writing poems for public gatherings and wrote many songs for temple festivals. He also wrote lyrics for classical dances such as Mohiniyattam and Siragugalur Nalanthana. His works were published under the names M. Bhāratīyaṇa Śūrpaṇḍrai (1892) and M. Bhāratīyaṇa Śūrpaṇḍram (1912).
Kanakasabai Subburathinam, nicknamed Bharathidasan, was a well-known 20th-century poet who wrote extensively on sociopolitical concerns. His lyrics fueled the rise of Tamil Nadu's Dravidian movement. He has been called the "Bard of India" for his influence on other poets.
Subburathinalu Kanakasabhai Bharatham Iyyappa Nayakaar was born on April 23, 1901 in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. He was married to Seethalakshmi and had two children. The family moved to Madurai when he was still a young man so that he could study at the University of Madras. There he became involved in student politics and was imprisoned twice for writing poems during this time. In 1921, he traveled to Europe for studying literature and philosophy, visiting many countries including India. Upon his return to India in 1925, he started publishing his poems in newspapers and magazines.
Kanakasabhai's poetry is known for its philosophical insights as well as its revolutionary nature. Many of his poems are based on Indian mythology and folklore which makes them interesting for students looking into ancient culture. He was also one of the first Indian poets to receive international recognition. In 1960, he received the Nobel Prize for Literature along with Chinese poet Li Po and Iranian poet Forugh Farrokhzad.
The Tamil devotional poetry produced by Nayanmars (sages of Shaivism) and Alvars (sages of Vaishnavism) between the sixth and twelfth centuries CE signaled the great Bhakti movement, which subsequently enveloped the whole Indian subcontinent. The Nayanar poets were men of faith who lived in south India. They are said to have been founders of 24 temples and 3 religions.
The Alvar saints were northern religious leaders who founded many churches with some similarities to Hindu temples. They too are regarded as divine beings and their bodies lie in sacred places of worship that they built themselves.
Tamil is an official language in South India and reads more like British English than like American English. It is used in temple rituals and religious texts.
8 Notable Malayalam Writers
Nannaya Bhatta made the first contribution to Telugu literature in the 11th century, with a lyrical translation of a portion of the Mahabharata ("Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty").
He was followed by several other poets who contributed to the development of this new literary form. The most famous among them is Tirumala-temple, who lived around 975 AD -1050 AD. He is considered as the father of modern Telugu poetry.
Telugu is an official language in Andhra Pradesh and also one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the third-most spoken language in India after Hindi and Bengali. As many as 80 million people speak some form of Telugu.
In 1950, the Government of India declared that English should be used in place of Telugu as its official language. This was followed by a movement in favor of making Telugu the official language of India. In 1957, the Andhra State Language Act was passed by the Parliament of India declaring that Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh.
Nowadays, there are many institutions where students can study Telugu. These include universities and colleges across India as well as abroad. There are also many schools where students can learn Telugu from teachers who are professional musicians or writers.
Ramacharitam and Thirunizhalmala, two epic poems composed in Old Malayalam, are the earliest known compositions in Malayalam. Manipravalam poetry thrived in the succeeding centuries, alongside a popular Pattu ("song") literature. The early medieval period is called the "golden age of Malayalam literature".
Malayalam is one of the official languages of India. It is widely spoken in the state of Kerala and also by people from other states where there are large communities of immigrants from Kerala. English is the most commonly taught foreign language in Indian schools.
According to tradition, Saint Kuriakose (Kuriakose Elias) introduced writing to Kerala around A.D. 600. He is said to have written several books in the Malayalam language during his lifetime. But it was not until much later that these books were discovered by scholars who published them. One of these books is Ramacharitamanas, which contains 234 songs or verses arranged in chapters based on different topics ranging from religion to love. This book is considered to be one of the greatest works of poetic genius in any language and its influence can still be seen in many modern poems.
Thirunizhalmela is a collection of poems by eight poets covering the years 675 to 755 AD. It is believed to be the first anthology of poems in Kerala.