La Solidaridad, a radical and reformist Filipino journal, ceased publication on November 15, 1895, due to a lack of funding. He stressed that La Solidaridad will pay special attention to issues concerning the Philippines, which lacks representation in the Spanish Cortes. At the time it was published, the journal had a print run of only 500 copies.
The Solidaridad was founded to represent the Propaganda Movement's desire of integration with Spain. On February 1, the inaugural edition of La Solidaridad was published. La Solidaridad, a bimonthly and biweekly newspaper, is the main organ of Spain's Reform Movement. It was founded by Agustín Zamora and Leandro Fernández de Moratín.
In 1874, after years of disagreement between Zamora and Fernández de Moratín, they agreed to dissolve their partnership. However, before doing so, they wrote joint articles for several newspapers including La Solidaridad which were considered treasonous by the government of Spain at that time. Both men were arrested and condemned to death but they were granted a royal pardon due to their influential status within Spanish society.
Later in his life, Fernández de Moratín became an active supporter of Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War and World War II. He died in Paris in 1958.
Zamora lived until 1937 when he witnessed the execution of both his partners. After this tragic event, he retired from public life.
La Solidaridad continues to be published today under the direction of its president Ángel González Panero. It is one of the most respected publications in Spain with thousands of subscribers across the country.
"La Solidaridad" means "Unity." To assist achieve its aims, the Propaganda Movement launched its own journal, La Solidaridad. The Soli, as the reformists affectionately referred to their official organ, was published every two weeks. On November 15, 1895, the first edition appeared in print. It included an article by José Martí titled "What is the Meaning of Labor Solidarity?" This essay would go on to influence labor movements around the world.
Martí, a Cuban poet and journalist, was one of the leaders of the movement. He argued that workers needed a voice in order to improve their working conditions. Without solidarity between laborers, there could be no unity within the working class.
The paper was based in Tampa, Florida, but had branches throughout the country. It often included articles written by other people too. For example, one of the editors, Samuel Gompers, wrote most of the editorials in support of the unions. Another editor, Mary A. Latham, helped with the layout and printing of the newspaper. She also wrote some articles under her own name.
La Solidaridad had a total of eighteen issues over the course of two years. It was printed on home-made paper and contained poems, stories, interviews, and opinions about current events related to labor issues.
The paper was successful in raising awareness about worker rights and helping establish many unions.
Prior to the Spaniards' dominion, Filipinos were intrinsically hardworking, according to Rizal. La Solidaridad also published "A La Patria" (November 15, 1889), "Sin Nobre" (Without a Name), and "Cosas de Filipinas" (Things About the Philippines). These articles formed the basis of what is now known as Philippine literature.
Rizal's writings for La Solidaridad include essays, poems, and sketches on various topics, including social issues such as poverty, injustice, and rebellion. Many of these pieces were first published in this newspaper; some were even reprinted from other publications around the world.
Some of Rizal's most famous essays that were originally published in La Solidaridad include "Noli Me Tangere" (Touch Me Not), "Mang Ang Almog" (That Man Is Free), and "Kapwa Kabataan" (Young People). Noli me tangere was initially entitled "Habang May Puso ang Alam ko" (As Long As My Heart Beats), while mang ang almog was first called "Lumipat ang Lahat ng Kaya" (Everything Rolls Up). Kapwa kabataan was first titled "Isinungkukan na Mag-aaral" (The Would-Be Scholar) but later changed to its current title.
It was published in five consecutive editions of La Solidaridad on July 15 and 31, August 1 and 31, and September 1, 1890. The Spanish colonization was what caused the Indians' productive activity to decline. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the indigenous people used to have many industries including mining, agriculture, and commerce. But after being subjugated by the Europeans, they were forced to work in mines and on plantations without any protection from slavery laws. This is why most Filipino historians believe that Rizal was right when he said "el indio es trabajador por naturaleza" (the Indian is a working man by nature).
Rizal's essay caused a big scandal in the Philippines because it criticized the Spaniards for their injustices against the Indians. At the time, the country was still under the rule of Spain so its citizens could speak out against the government officials who were responsible for these abuses. Rizal was arrested on March 30, 1892, and later sentenced to death for treason. He was executed by firing squad on December 30, 1896.
La Solidaridad was a new newspaper founded by Dr. José Protacio de Antón y Pío de Ariaga. It had very popular weekly editions so more people got to hear about Rizal's ideas even if they were not able to read him directly.
Pigafetta's writings were regarded untrustworthy by Agoncillo. Pigafetta's writings were disqualified by Agoncillo's declaration that there was no Philippine history prior to 1872. He saw this as Spanish history as viewed through the eyes of a European, rather than through the eyes and words of a Filipino. Therefore, Pigafetta's writings could not be accepted as valid evidence for the existence of pre-1872 events in the Philippines.
In addition, Pigafetta had fabricated parts of his journal. For example, he had inserted text into some of his photographs to make them appear more dramatic. Also, he had exaggerated the size of some islands in order to make himself look important. These actions violated rules that Agoncillo used to evaluate journals; therefore, they were rejected.
There are two reasons why Pigafetta's journal has never been published. First, it was declared null and void by Domingo Agoncillo, who ordered that no further action be taken with respect to it. Second, although portions of his journal have survived, others do not. There are several chapters in the journal that no longer exist, most likely due to Pigafetta destroying pages before leaving the country.
Even though Pigafetta's journal has never been published, it has still been used by historians to write about pre-1872 events in the Philippines.
Rizal wrote "A la juventud filipina" when he was just eighteen years old and dedicated it to the Filipino youth, whom he characterizes as "the fair hope of my nation." ... The Filipino youth
|Publisher||Manila Lyceum of Art and Literature|
1702 Paper was so inexpensive by 1702 that it was utilized to create a product that was intentionally supposed to be discarded after only 24 hours: the Daily Courant, the world's first daily newspaper. Then followed an almost unavoidable industrial crisis: Europe and America grew so desperate for paper that they ran out of rags. The problem was solved when England passed a law requiring all wood to be turned into pulp before it could be used for paper.
Around this time, the Italian scientist Giambattista Bodoni developed a typeface specifically for printing newspapers. It is still in use today.
1865 The Chinese invented paper manufacturing with their mulberry tree processing system. The process involved removing the bark from the trunk of the tree, then boiling it in water until the fibers separated from the wood. The fibers were then spread out on large drums where they dried in the sun. When ready, they were beaten into thin sheets which were then dyed and finished with oil or wax.
1885 An American named Charles Frazier used paper made from wood pulp processed with chemicals instead. This is the kind of paper we know today. It is less expensive than cotton paper and has many other advantages. For example, it is easy to write on with pencil and erase mistakes without ruining the page.
1915 The first mass production paper mill opened in Pennsylvania.