Plato is famous for exiling poetry and poets from the Republic's ideal city. He expelled them because they wrote the incorrect kind of poetry. To respond to Plato's criticism of poetry, what is required is not a defense of poetry itself, but a defense of poets' freedom to write as and what they desire.
Poetry is one of the nine arts in Ancient Greece. It was also known as "the singing art" since it used words as instruments for expressing thoughts and ideas. Poets were usually paid for their work, but some poems were written as part of religious ceremonies or even in honor of the gods.
Plato believed that poetry and musicianship were too important to be left to chance. Therefore, he proposed to exile them from the city because he thought that this would make people more rational and responsible. However, some scholars believe that he banished them because they represented the only two arts that couldn't be taught. Since teaching was considered very important by Plato, he wanted to remove any potential obstacles for learning other than religion and politics which everyone could agree on should not be mixed with education.
Even though Plato banned poetry and musicianship from the city, they continued to be practiced outside the city gates. So, poetry and musicianship were not actually banned under Greek law. The only thing that Plato did was to forbid his citizens from engaging in these activities.
Plato's three major criticisms of poetry are that it is not ethical, philosophical, or pragmatic. In other words, he was opposed to poetry from the standpoints of education, philosophy, and morality. Poetry seduces the reader into feeling unfavorable feelings. As a result, it breaks down moral barriers and encourages immoral behavior. Finally, poetry lacks any practical value and can therefore have no role in politics.
Socrates uses poetry as an example when arguing that some things are good to do and others are not. For instance, he says that making money at any cost is not a good action because it is harmful to one's friends and family. Similarly, he argues that fighting injustice is good because it helps maintain justice in society. However, killing people unjustly is not good because it causes more problems than it solves. "The poet," Socrates says, "who tries to persuade by means of verse will be using a bad instrument; for what is intended by speech is achieved not by rhyme but by reason."
In conclusion, poetry is without value except as an educational tool used by Plato to explain his views on ethics, politics, and philosophy.
Plato detested poetry for moral, intellectual, and emotional reasons. Aristotle addresses Plato's concerns one by one, defending poetry morally, emotionally, and rationally. He is the first to utilize the phrase "katharsis" in relation to tragedy, and this section of his poetry is both creative and emotional. In addition, Aristotle defends poetry against those who claim that it is not scientific because it does not yield knowledge or truth about reality. He argues that poetry is like science in that it uses empirical evidence to arrive at conclusions about how things are or might be. Finally, he argues that poetry should be included among the arts since it can be considered creative rather than merely utilitarian.
Aristotle (384 B.C. - 322 B.C.) was a Greek philosopher and poet. His work on rhetoric, which includes a comprehensive discussion of poetry, has had an enormous influence on writers throughout history. His ideas have been used as a basis for much modern thinking about language, logic, argumentation, and the art of persuasion.
In defense of poetry, Aristotle argues that poetry has great moral as well as emotional benefit. He says that we learn justice from poets and heroes, and they teach us to value fairness and honesty. Poetry also teaches us to accept others as they are, to forgive, and to feel joy even in difficult circumstances. Finally, Aristotle asserts that poetry is useful because it provides information about how to act in situations that we encounter in our daily lives.
You'd think that a philosopher like Plato would admire literary art, but he really criticized it, along with other types of what he called mimesis. Plato, as a moralist, despises poetry because it is immoral. He disapproves of it as a philosopher since it is built on lie.
Plato attacked literary art in three books of his works: The "Ion" (c. 428 B.C.), The "Cratylus" (408 B.C.) and The "Poetics" (391 B.C.). In these texts, he argues against the existence of poetry and its role in society.
He believes that poets are the enemies of philosophy because they offer an alternative way of thinking about reality that avoids discussing abstract ideas such as truth, goodness and beauty. Instead, they focus on describing how things appear to us through the eyes of someone who experiences life directly, which is why poems are usually made up of words and phrases related to love and hate, joy and sadness. This type of language is useful for arousing feelings in our listeners or readers, which is why poets are important people in society.
However, Plato argues that this form of art is completely different from philosophy. For him, there are two ways we can understand reality: either by analyzing it or by experiencing it directly.