He is best known for his books The Stranger (1942), The Plague (1947), and The Fall (1949). (1956). Camus was given the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957 "for his major creative creation, which reveals the challenges of the human conscience in our times with clear-sighted seriousness."
The Nobel Foundation said at the time of the award that The Stranger "has had a remarkable influence on how people throughout the world view reality and existence."
It added that the book "is an ethical essay written in the first person about a man who kills another man in self-defense. But this act sets off chain reactions that lead to further violence and destruction. The story questions whether or not it is just to judge others and condemns all forms of violence without exception."
Camus's own acceptance speech was delivered by French writer Jean-Paul Sartre.
In it, Camus argued that mankind needed something to believe in beyond good and evil to give meaning to life. He concluded by saying: "My only hope is that The Stranger will one day be considered as important as Crime and Punishment or Faust."
Crime and Punishment and Faust are two of the most influential novels in history. They have been translated into nearly every language spoken today and are required reading in many schools and universities around the world.
Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1902 "for his work on malaria, by which he has showed how it enters the organism and therefore provided the ground for effective study on this illness and methods of combatting it."
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes. In recent years, researchers have focused their efforts on finding ways to prevent people from being bitten by mosquitoes in the first place. Dr. Ross worked on this issue too, but he was also one of the first scientists to realize that malaria could not be stopped at the source - since people always travel with malaria parasites inside them, they will always get sick even if they avoid mosquito bites. So Dr. Ross turned his attention to finding a cure for the disease.
He started by studying how malaria parasites enter human cells. Then he tried to infect lab animals with these parasites so that he could observe what happened inside them as well. This information will allow him to design drugs that can stop the infection before it becomes fatal. Dr. Ross' work has helped millions of people around the world because it has increased our understanding of malaria and led to many advances in treatment. He is still considered one of the most important scientists in malaria research today.
John Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1962 "for his realistic and inventive works, which combine compassionate humour with strong social awareness."
He was born on January 26th, 1902 in San Francisco, California. His father was a doctor who moved the family to Japan when John Steinbeck was nine years old. They returned to California when he was 13 years old.
In 1919 he enlisted in the United States Navy and served for four years as a fireman on oil tankers. After leaving the navy he worked at various jobs including fishing guide for two years in Alaska before settling down as a journalist. He wrote several novels and short stories over the course of his career.
His work Mice and Men has been cited as an influence on the Black Power movement while his novel The Grapes of Wrath has been described as an American epic.
Steinbeck died in 1968 at the age of 58 after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage while working on his latest project. The book was published posthumously in 1975.
According to research conducted by the Nobel Foundation, out of the 9 million words that make up the literature prize-winning books, more than half were written by Steinbeck.
Ivo Andric was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961 "for the epic intensity with which he has traced themes and represented human fates taken from his country's past."
The committee that awards the prize each year selects a number of candidates who seem likely to receive it. These candidates are then reviewed by a panel of judges who decide whether they are indeed worthy winners. If they are, then they are invited to Stockholm to accept their award.
Andric was already one of Europe's most respected writers at the time he received the prize. His works, which include war stories and historical novels, have been translated into many languages and are still popular today.
He came from a large family who had little money. When he was young, his father died and his mother could not continue writing because she had no salary. So, Ivo Andric started working when he was only nine years old. He worked in a factory that made sewing machines until he was 18. After that, he went to college where he studied literature and history for three years.
During World War II, he joined the army and was sent to fight against the Russians. He was captured by them and spent two years in a prison camp where many people died.
Patrick White received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his fiction work, namely for his books The Vivisector and The Eye of the Storm. He is the first Australian to receive this award.
The Vivisector tells the story of a young man's quest to find happiness through knowledge. It won both the Booker Prize and the New York Public Library's Young Lions Award. The Eye of the Storm focuses on the relationship between a young boy and his father, when the father decides to fight cancer by going into remission. This book was also nominated for the Nobel Prize.
White was born on January 4th, 1937 in Sydney, Australia. He was raised by his mother after his father died when he was only nine years old. He started writing at an early age and published his first novel, Vainly Seeking, at twenty-one. This was followed by another six novels over the next seven years. In 1964, he moved to Italy where he lived for several years and wrote several more books including two memoirs. When he returned to Australia, he discovered that his girlfriend had married someone else so he decided not to follow her and stayed in Australia. He has since been living here ever since.
Hermann Hesse received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1946 "for his inspired writings that, while developing in boldness and intensity, reflect the classical humanitarian principles and high characteristics of style."
He had been nominated by his friend Carl Jung. The Swedish Academy said he was chosen because of his "poetic vision" and "lucid expression" which "have had a powerful influence on many young people".
Hesse was born on March 2nd 1877 in Bern, Switzerland and died on July 17th 1962 in Rome, Italy. He is best known for his novels: Siddhartha (1922), The Glass Bead Game (1943), and Moses (1946).
His work has been translated into more than 30 languages and is still popular today.
After graduating from secondary school, Hesse decided to become a painter but gave up this ambition to study literature at the University of Zurich. In 1900 he traveled to Germany where he worked as an assistant editor on a newspaper in Stuttgart. In 1902 he returned to Switzerland and took charge of the literary section of a newspaper in Basle. In 1904 he moved back to Germany where he worked as a literary critic for several newspapers including the Frankfurter Zeitung and Die Welt.