Only the Battle of Maldon (and the Battle of Brunanburh, which commemorates an English victory over Danish and Scottish forces in 937) give insight into how an Anglo-Saxon poet may perceive his own age in the context of Germanic literary and cultural heritage. Although the poem is fragmentary, it seems that the author was Leofwine of Wessex, a priest and monk of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury.
The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 and is mentioned by name only in one other source: the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. This single reference makes it difficult to estimate how often the battle was recounted by contemporaries; however, it does suggest that it was not considered significant enough to record in more than one place. It has been suggested that the battle may have been fictionalized by Leofwine for purposes of propaganda, since there is no evidence that it actually occurred. If this is true, then it shows that an early 10th century poet could have great artistic license when writing about past events.
Maldon marks an important stage in the development of English literature, as it is here that we first encounter ancient poems in the language. The Battle of Maldon is generally regarded as the earliest example of English poetry, although some critics argue that parts of Wulfstan's sermon are also poetic.
The term "The Battle of Maldon" refers to an Old English song of unknown origin that commemorates the genuine Battle of Maldon in 991, in which an Anglo-Saxon force failed to repel a Viking attack. Only 325 lines of the poem are known to exist; both the beginning and the end have been lost. It is believed that the battle itself was probably not recorded in writing at the time it took place.
What is known about it comes from later sources including historian Alfred the Great's account of the event in his life of his father King Edward the Elder. According to Alfred, the Vikings attacked England's eastern coast but were defeated by Earl Leofric and his men. The poet may have based this story on facts found in historical records he had access to, or possibly he made up the story as a tribute to the warriors who fought in this important battle.
There are several theories about who lost the battle and why. Some historians believe it was probably not one single battle but rather a series of skirmishes between the two armies with each side winning some of them. In this case, Maldon would be like a lot of other ancient battles where there is no clear winner nor loser because they ended up being terms in a war that was still going on when Alfred wrote about it.
Some historians think Maldon might have been a draw since there was no clear winner despite what Alfred the Great says in his work.
Book Synopsis The War of Maldon: Fiction and Fact collects specifically commissioned pieces by top literary, archaeological, and historical researchers to present a comprehensive and accurate description of the battle based on the most recent study. The collection includes contributions from some of the foremost experts in their fields who have been inspired by the legendary nature of the war to explore its origins beyond the traditional accounts of Anglo-Saxon history.
The War of the Books is a short, mock-heroic story of a battle among the books at St. James's Palace's King's Library. The war is a satirical metaphor of an intellectual argument that has raged in England since 1692, known as the Battle of the Ancients and the Moderns. It was fought between two opposing groups of writers: those who supported the Greek and Roman authors whose work had been collected by King Charles II and his brother King James II after they were overthrown in 1649 during the English Civil War, and those who favored writing only about modern subjects.
The story tells how this argument came to be, with each side marshaling their forces for a final showdown. The Ancient Writers win the day, but not without great cost: both sides are greatly weakened by the conflict.
The story was written by John Dryden, who is considered one of the best poets of the 17th century. He first published it in 1693 in his collection Of Dramatic Poetry, Vol. I. It has been suggested that Dryden wrote it as a parody of several other poems that he deemed unworthy of attention. However, others believe that Dryden actually supports the cause of the Ancient Writers in this story. Either way, it is regarded as one of the best examples of its kind.
John Milton also writes about this subject in his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667).
John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi is one of the classic English Renaissance dramas. It's also an example of Senecan tragedy, a type of plays named after the Roman poet Seneca that emphasizes vengeance and brutal, dramatic bloodshed. Like many of his contemporaries, Webster was influenced by both Seneca and Euripides, another Greek tragedian.
The Duchess of Malfi is about a powerful woman who loses everything because of her jealousy. The play features some extremely violent scenes of bloodletting and dismemberment.
Like many tragedies written before Shakespeare's time, The Duchess of Malfi has no clear hero or villain. All we know for sure is that the main character, Ippolito, is a proud man who refuses to admit he's been wronged until it's too late. He dies without reconciling with his wife, who has been completely innocent all along. Her name is Giulietta and she is Ippolito's mistress. They have two children together but Ippolito never loved Giulietta; he used him as a way of getting back at his husband Ferrante, who had rejected him in favor of Ippolito. After Ferrante's death, Ippolito sets out to destroy his wife because he believes she is responsible for his loss.
Wilfred Owen's collection of poetry reveals the brutal sadness of war via the incidents he witnessed. His poetry entice and captivate readers, helping them experience the sorrow of his words and attempting to acquire some understanding of the tragedy that occurred during the war. The poem "Dulce et Decorum Est" (1917) expresses his feelings on death with beautiful language and imagery.
Owen grew up in South Wales, where he lived a happy life with his family until they were forced to move to Suffolk due to his father being offered a job at a school there. However, only three months after their arrival in Suffolk, World War I broke out. Wilfred was sent to fight for England, but he never made it home because he was killed by a sniper while watching over his friend's body.
Owen's poems are very emotional and exposed upon the horror of war. He expressed his hatred towards the war and the people involved in it in his poems "Futility" and "Anthem For Doomed Youth". He also revealed his love for nature and animals in other poems such as "The Wild Birds" and "To A Child In Trouble".
Owen's work is considered important for its influence on modern poets such as Robert Frost and John Donne. His language and imagery have been cited as influences by many famous writers including Virginia Woolf and T.S. Eliot.